Ví dụ : 1. Touch your toes without bending your knees ! Gerund 2. I avoid meeting him again. Gerund 3. They found a tree lying across the road. Present Participle 4. Hearing a strange noise, she ran outside the house. Present Participle
II. So sánh Perfect Gerund và Perfect Participle:
Điểm chung: having + V3/ Ved
Vị trí - Sau giới từ
- Sau động từ theo sau V-ing - Sau tân ngữ
- Đầu mệnh đề
Ví dụ : 1. He denied having stolen her bag. Perfect Gerund 2. He was accused of having deserted his ship two months ago. Perfect Gerund 3. Having read the instruction, he snatched up the fire extinguisher. Perfect Participle 4. They found someone having broken into their house last night. Perfect Participle
III. Cách sử dụng V-ing và Having+ V3/ Ved:
Hướng dẫn cách dùng V-ing hay having + V3/ Ved khi rút gọn câu có 2 mệnh đề và có cùng 1 chủ từ. Nếu 2 hành động ở 2 mệnh đề xảy ra đồng thời hay được chia cùng thì với nhau, ta lược bỏ chủ từ ở 1 mệnh đề rồi sau đó chia động từ trong mệnh đề đó ở dạng V-ing. Nếu 2 hành động ở 2 mệnh đề xảy ra theo thứ tự trước sau, ta lược bỏ chủ từ của mệnh đề có hành động xảy ra trước rồi sau đó chia động từ trong mệnh đề đó ở dạng Having + V3/ Ved.
Cách nhận dạng trước thì: - Hiện tại hoàn thành trước Hiện tại đơn. - Quá khứ hoàn thành trước Quá khứ đơn. - Quá khứ đơn trước Hiện tại đơn.
So sánh 2 ví dụ sau:
1. When I saw the dog, I ran away. Seeing the dog, I ran away. ( cùng là thì quá khứ )
2. When I had seen the dog, I ran away. ( quá khứ hoàn thành và quá khứ đơn ) Having seen the dog, I ran away.
BÀI TẬP ÁP DỤNG
I. Chọn đáp án đúng: 1. Having waited / waiting 5 months for the fridge to be deliveried, I decide to cancel / have canceled the order. 2. The government plans to bring / have brought in new laws. 3. He denied telling / having told her that story. 4. Before leaving / having left, she gave me a book. 5. I look forward to seeing / having seen you soon. 6. We are talking about having gone / going to HN next month. 7. I hate being kept waiting / having been kept waiting for her when we go out. 8. I hate being kept waiting / having been kept waiting for her when we went out last night.
II. Viết lại các câu sau dùng participle phrase: 1. I knew that he was poor. I offered to pay his fare.
4. He found no one at home. He left the house in a bad temper.
____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. He hoped to find the will. She searched everywhere. ____________________________________________________________________________________
6. The criminal removed all traces of his crime. He left the building.
HƯỚNG DẪN GIẢI Thực hiện: Ban Chuyên môn Tuyensinh247.com
I. 1. Having waited 2. bring 3. telling 4. leaving 5. seeing 6. going 7. being kept waiting 8. having been kept waiting II. 1.Knowing that he was poor I offered to pay his fare. 2. Barricading the windows, we assembled in the hall. 3. Becoming tired of my complaints about the program she turned it off. 4. Finding no one at home he left the house in a bad temper. 5. Hoping to find the will she searched everywhere. 6. Having removed all traces of his crime the criminal left the building. 7. Realizing that he had missed the last train he began to walk. 8. Exhausted by his work he threw himself on his bed. 9. Having spent all his money. He decided to go home and ask his father for a job. 10. Escaping from prison. He looked for a place where he could get food. 11. Having heard the story before he didn’t want to hear it again. 12. Finding money they started quarreling about how to devide it. 13. Entering the house suddenly she found them smoking. 14. Turning on the light I was astonished at what I saw. 15. Having visiting the museum we decided to have lunch in the park. 16. Having thought we were lost he offered to show us the way home. He thought we were lost. 17. Having found his revolver, he loaded it and sat down facing the door. 18. Having realized that she couldn't move it alone she asked me to help her. 19. Having fed the dog he sat down to his own dinner. 20. Having addressed the congregation he said he was sorry to see how few of them had been able to come.
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