Phân biệt V_ing & Having + Ved

Cập nhật lúc: 14:46 06-09-2017 Mục tin: Ngữ Pháp (Grammar)


Phân biệt cách dùng của hiện tại phân từ ( V-ing) và phân từ hoàn thành ( having + Ved) ngắn gọn, dễ hiểu và bài tập áp dụng có đáp án giúp người học nắm bắt kiến thức hỗ trợ học tập tốt hơn.

PHÂN BIỆT V-ING & HAVING V-ed/ V3

I. So sánh Gerund và Present participle:

 Điểm chung: V-ing

- Sau động từ theo sau V-ing - Sau tân ngữ ( tân ngữ sau các động từ chỉ nhận thức, tri giác)
- Sau “ go”

- Đầu mệnh đề trạng ngữ và tính từ rút gọn khi 2 vế có cùng chủ ngữ.

Ví dụ :
1. Touch your toes without bending your knees !  Gerund
2. I avoid meeting him again.  Gerund
3. They found a tree lying across the road.  Present Participle
4. Hearing a strange noise, she ran outside the house.  Present Participle

II. So sánh Perfect Gerund và Perfect Participle:

 Điểm chung: having + V3/ Ved

Phân biệt:

Vị trí - Sau giới từ

- Sau động từ theo sau V-ing
- Sau tân ngữ

- Đầu mệnh đề

Ví dụ :
1. He denied having stolen her bag.  Perfect Gerund
2. He was accused of having deserted his ship two months ago.  Perfect Gerund
3. Having read the instruction, he snatched up the fire extinguisher.  Perfect Participle
4. They found someone having broken into their house last night.  Perfect Participle

III. Cách sử dụng V-ing và Having+ V3/ Ved:

Hướng dẫn cách dùng V-ing hay having + V3/ Ved khi rút gọn câu có 2 mệnh đề và có cùng 1 chủ từ.
 Nếu 2 hành động ở 2 mệnh đề xảy ra đồng thời hay được chia cùng thì với nhau, ta lược bỏ chủ từ ở 1 mệnh đề rồi sau đó chia động từ trong mệnh đề đó ở dạng V-ing.
 Nếu 2 hành động ở 2 mệnh đề xảy ra theo thứ tự trước sau, ta lược bỏ chủ từ của mệnh đề có hành động xảy ra trước rồi sau đó chia động từ trong mệnh đề đó ở dạng Having + V3/ Ved.

 Cách nhận dạng trước thì:
- Hiện tại hoàn thành trước Hiện tại đơn.
- Quá khứ hoàn thành trước Quá khứ đơn.
- Quá khứ đơn trước Hiện tại đơn.

So sánh 2 ví dụ sau:

1. When I saw the dog, I ran away.
 Seeing the dog, I ran away. ( cùng là thì quá khứ )

2. When I had seen the dog, I ran away. ( quá khứ hoàn thành và quá khứ đơn )
 Having seen the dog, I ran away.

BÀI TẬP ÁP DỤNG

I. Chọn đáp án đúng:
1. Having waited / waiting 5 months for the fridge to be deliveried, I decide to cancel / have canceled the order.
2. The government plans to bring / have brought in new laws.
3. He denied telling / having told her that story.
4. Before leaving / having left, she gave me a book.
5. I look forward to seeing / having seen you soon.
6. We are talking about having gone / going to HN next month.
7. I hate being kept waiting / having been kept waiting for her when we go out.
8. I hate being kept waiting / having been kept waiting for her when we went out last night.

II. Viết lại các câu sau dùng participle phrase:
1. I knew that he was poor. I offered to pay his fare.

 ____________________________________________________________________________________

2. We barricaded the windows. We assembled in the hall.

 ____________________________________________________________________________________

3. She became tired of my complaints about the program. She turned it off.

 ____________________________________________________________________________________

4. He found no one at home. He left the house in a bad temper.

 ____________________________________________________________________________________
5. He hoped to find the will. She searched everywhere.  ____________________________________________________________________________________

6. The criminal removed all traces of his crime. He left the building.

 ____________________________________________________________________________________

7. He realized that he had missed the last train. He began to walk.

 ____________________________________________________________________________________

8. He was exhausted by his work. He threw himself on his bed.  ____________________________________________________________________________________

9. He had spent all his money. He decided to go home and ask his father for a job.

 ____________________________________________________________________________________

10. He escaped from prison. He looked for a place where he could get food.

 ____________________________________________________________________________________

11. She didn't want to hear the story again. She had heard it all before.

 ____________________________________________________________________________________

12. They found the money. They began quarreling about how to divide it.

 ____________________________________________________________________________________

13. She entered the room suddenly. She found them smoking.

____________________________________________________________________________________

14. I turned on the light. I was astonished at what I saw.

 ____________________________________________________________________________________

15. We visited the museum. We decided to have lunch in the park.

 ____________________________________________________________________________________

16. He offered to show us the way home. He thought we were lost.

 ____________________________________________________________________________________

17. He found his revolver. He loaded it. He sat down facing the door.

 ____________________________________________________________________________________

18. She asked me to help her. She realized that she couldn't move it alone.

 ____________________________________________________________________________________

19. He fed the dog. He sat down to his own dinner.

 ____________________________________________________________________________________

20. He addressed the congregation. He said he was sorry to see how few of them had been able to come.

 ____________________________________________________________________________________

HƯỚNG DẪN GIẢI
Thực hiện: Ban Chuyên môn Tuyensinh247.com

I.
1. Having waited
2. bring
3. telling
4. leaving
5. seeing
6. going
7. being kept waiting
8. having been kept waiting
II.
1.Knowing that he was poor I offered to pay his fare.
2. Barricading the windows, we assembled in the hall.
3. Becoming tired of my complaints about the program she turned it off.
4. Finding no one at home he left the house in a bad temper.
5. Hoping to find the will she searched everywhere.
6. Having removed all traces of his crime the criminal left the building.
7. Realizing that he had missed the last train he began to walk.
8. Exhausted by his work he threw himself on his bed.
9. Having spent all his money. He decided to go home and ask his father for a job. 10. Escaping from prison. He looked for a place where he could get food.
11. Having heard the story before he didn’t want to hear it again.
12. Finding money they started quarreling about how to devide it.
13. Entering the house suddenly she found them smoking.
14. Turning on the light I was astonished at what I saw.
15. Having visiting the museum we decided to have lunch in the park.
16. Having thought we were lost he offered to show us the way home. He thought we were lost.
17. Having found his revolver, he loaded it and sat down facing the door.
18. Having realized that she couldn't move it alone she asked me to help her.
19. Having fed the dog he sat down to his own dinner.
20. Having addressed the congregation he said he was sorry to see how few of them had been able to come.

 

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