Đề cương ôn tập tiếng Anh 11

Cập nhật lúc: 16:40 12-07-2016 Mục tin: TỪ VỰNG ( VOCABULARY)


Đề cương ôn tập tiếng Anh 11 tổng hợp toàn bộ lý thuyết ngữ pháp tiếng Anh ở dạng công thức và chi tiết kết hợp với bài tập áp dụng sau mỗi bài giúp học sinh nhớ kiến thức tốt hơn và áp dụng vào các bài tập và kiểm tra hiệu quả hơn.

 

TO-INFINITIVES / BARE INFINITIVES / GERUNDS

(Động từ nguyên mẫu có “to”, nguyên mẫu không “to”, danh động từ)

1. To-infinitive / Infinitive with to

* V + to-VO                                                                                                                                

- hope: hy vọng                       - offer:  đề nghị                       - expect: mong đợi

- plan: lên kế họach                 - refuse: từ chối                       - want: muốn

- promise: hứa                         - pretend: giả vờ                      - fail: thất bại, hỏng

- attempt: cố gắng, nỗ lực       - tend: có khuynh hướng        - threaten: đe dọa

- intend: định                           - seem: dường như                  - decide: quyết định

- manage: xoay sở, cố gắng     - agree: đồng ý                        - ask: yêu cầu

- afford: đáp ứng                     - arrange: sắp xếp                    - tell: bảo

- appear: hình như                   - learn: học/ học cách              - invite: mời

- would like                             - offer: cho, tặng, đề nghị

* Trong các cấu trúc:

   + It takes / took + O + thời gian + to-Vo                    

   + chỉ mục đích

   + bổ ngữ cho danh từ hoặc đại từ: S + V + Noun / pronoun + to-Vo

           I have some letters to write.

           Is there anything to eat?

   + It + be + adj + to-inf: thật … để ..

Ex: It is interesting to study English

   + S + be + adj + to-inf

Ex: I’m happy to receive your latter.

   + S + V + too + adj / adv + to-inf

   + S + V + adj / adv + enough + to-inf

   + S + find / think / believe + it + adj + to-inf

Ex: I find it difficult to learn English vocabulary.

- Sau các từ nghi vấn: what, who, which, when, where, how,… (nhưng thường không dùng sau why)

Ex: I don’t know what to say.

* Note:

- allow / permit/ advise / recommend + O + to-inf                  She allowed me to use her pen.

- allow / permit / advise / recommend + V-ing                        She didn’t allow smoking in her room

II. Bare infinitive / Infinitive without to

* V + O + bare inf

-         let          - make             - had better                  - would rather

 Note be + made + to-inf

-         help + V1 / to-inf

-         help + O + V1 / to-inf

-         help + O + with + N

Ex: My brother helped me do my homework.

      My brother helped me to do my homework.

      My brother helped me with my homework.

* Động từ chỉ giác quan

- Các động từ chỉ tri giác: hear, sound, smell, taste, feel, watch, notice, see, listen, find .. + O + V1 (chỉ sự hoàn tất của hành động – nghe hoặc thấy toàn bộ sự việc diễn ra)

Ex: I saw her get off the bus.

- Các động từ chỉ tri giác: hear, sound, smell, taste, feel, watch, notice, see, listen, find .. + O + V-ing (chỉ sự việc đang diễn ra)

Ex: I smell something burning in the kitchen.

III. GERUND (V-ing)

* V + V-ing  

            - mention: đề cập đến              - quit: từ bỏ                             - risk: có nguy cơ

- fancy: thích                           - deny: phủ nhận                     - involve: liên quan

- detest: ghét                           - encourage: khích lệ               - consider: xem xét

- imagine: tưởng tượng           - miss: bỏ lỡ                             - It is no use: không có ích

- It is no good: không tốt        - postpone: hoãn lại                 - suggest: đề nghị

- practice: luyện tập                - finish                                     - admit: thừa nhận

- avoid: tránh                          - mind: ngại                             - delay: hoãn              

- hate: ghét     

-         waste / spend: lãng phí, bỏ ra (thời gian, tiền bạc)

-         have difficulty / trouble: gặp khó khăn/trở ngại

-         can’t help: không thể không

-         can’t stand / can’t bear: không chịu đựng nỗi

-         feel like: cảm thấy thích

-         look forward to: mong chờ, mong đợi

-         It is (not) worth: đáng / không đáng

-         keep / keep on: tiếp tục

-         be busy                        

-         be used to / get used to

* Sau các liên từ: after, before, when, while, since,…

Ex: After finishing his homework, he went to bed.

* Sau các giới từ: on, in, at, with, about, from, to, without, ….

Ex: My sister is interested in listening to pop music.

IV. INFINITIVE OR GERUND (To-inf / V-ing)

1. Không thay đổi nghĩa:

- begin / start / continue/ like / love + To-inf / V-ing

Ex: It started to rain / raining.

2. Thay đổi nghĩa:

+ remember / forget / regret + V-ing: nhớ / quên/ nuối tiếc việc đã xảy ra rồi (trong quá khứ)

+ remember / forget / regret + to-inf: nhớ / quên/ nuối tiếc việc chưa, sắp xảy ra (trong tương lai)

Ex: Don’t forget to turn off the light when you go to bed.

      I remember meeting you some where but I can’t know your name.

      Remember to send her some flowers because today is her birthday.

+ stop + V-ing: dừng hẳn việc gì

+ stop + to-inf: dừng ….. để …

Ex: He stopped smoking because it is harmful for his health.

      On the way home, I stopped at the post office to buy a newspaper.

+ try + V-ing: thử

+ try + to-inf: cố gắng

+ need + V-ing = need + to be + V3: cần được (bị động)

+ need + to-inf: cần (chủ động)

Ex: I need to wash my car.

      My car is very dirty. It needs washing / to be washed.

         + Cấu trúc nhờ vả:

S + have + O người + V1 + O vật ...

S + have + O vật + V3/-ed + (by + O người) ...

S + get + O người + to-inf + O vật

S + get + O vật + V3/-ed + (by + O người)

­ Exercise: Choose the best answer:

  1. Many young people are fond of -------------- football and other kinds of sports.
    A. play                           B. to play                            C. playing                               D. played
  2. They couldn’t help -------------- when they heard the little boy singing a love song.
    A. laughing                    B. to laugh                          C. laugh                                D. laughed
  3. Your house needs -------------- .
    A. redecorated               B. redecorating                   C. being redecorated            D. to redecorate
  4. I remember -------------- them to play in my garden.
    A. to allow                     B. allow                              C. allowing                           D. allowed
  5. It  was a nasty memory. Do you remember both of us wearing sunglasses to avoid -------------- by the supervisors?
    A. to recognize               B. to be recognized            C. recognizing                      D. being recognized
  6. I can’t bear thinking back of that time. I’d rather -------------- equally.
    A. treat                           B. be treated                       C. have treated                     D. treating
  7. Did you accuse Namof -------------- a plate? Well, I saw him -------------- it off the table with his elbow.
    A. break/ knock      B. breaking/ knocking     C. to break/ to knock         D. breaking/ knock
  8. We found it very difficult -------------- with Gamma.
    A. to work                      B. work                               C. working                           D. worked
  9. I can’t read when I am traveling. It makes me -------------- sick.
    A. feel                            B. to feel                             C. felt                                   D. feeling
  10. I need -------------- what’s in the letter. Why don’t you let me -------------- it?
    A. to know/ to read        B. know/ read                     C. to know/ read          D. knowing/ read
  11. I suggest -------------- some more mathematical puzzles.  
    A.  do                             B. to do                              C. doing                               D. done
  12. We regret -------------- you that we cannot approve your suggestion.
    A. inform                       B. to inform                        C. informing                         D. informed
  13.  The driver stopped -------------- a coffee because he felt sleepy.
    A. have                           B. to have                           C. having                              D. had
  14. Have you ever considered -------------- a pharmacist?
    A.  become                     B. becoming                       C. to become                        D. became
  15. You had better -------------- at home until you feel better.                                     
    A. staying                       B. stayed                            C. to stay                              D. stay
  16. I remember -------------- my mother said the grass in the garden needed --------------.
    A. to hear/cutting           B. hear/cut      C. heard/to cut                     D. hearing/ cutting
  17. Peter sometimes help his sister --------------.
    A. do homework            B. to do homework            C. with homework               D. all are correct
  18.  I would rather -------------- at home than --------------out with you.
    A. staying/going             B. to stay/ to go                  C. stay/go                             D. stayed/went
  19. I would rather you --------------.
    A. drive                          B. to drive                          C. drove                               D. driven
  20. She didn’t say a word and left the room.
    A. She left the room without saying a word             B. She leaving the room without saying a word         
    C. She left the room saying a word                           D. She left the room to say a word.
  21. My father wanted me -------------- a pilot.                                                             
    A. become                      B. to become                      C. becoming                         D. became
  22. Please wait a minute. My boss is busy -------------- something.
    A. write                          B. writing                           C. to write                            D. to writing
  23. My teacher doesn’t allow us -------------- while he is explaining the lesson.
    A. talk                            B. to talk                             C. talking                             D. talked
  24. We have plenty of time. We needn’t --------------   
    A.  hurry                         B. to hurry                          C. hurrying                           D. hurried
  25. I promised -------------- on time. I mustn’t -------------- late.
    A. be/be                          B. to be/to be                      C. to be/ be                           D. be/to be
  26. Mary and I are looking forward -------------- you.
    A.  of seeing                   B. for seeing                       C. to seeing                          D. to see
  27. I’m sure that he knows -------------- this new machine.
    A. to use                         B. using                              C. how using                        D. how to use
  28. Psychiatrists and doctors have failed -------------- people not to drink.      
    A. to tell                         B. telling                             C. tell                                   D. told
  29. The students are used to -------------- in the school library.  
    A. working                     B. work                               C. to work                            D. worked
  30. Our room needs -------------- up.                               
    A. tidied                         B. to tide                            C. tidy                                  D. tidying
  31. Mercury’s low gravity makes you -------------- very light in a spaceship.
    A. feel                            B. feeling                            C. to feel                              D. felt
  32. “ Was the test long?”. “ Yes, John was the only one -------------- it”
    A. to finish                     B. finishing                         C. finished                           D. finish
  33. A lots of needs -------------- to the house before anyone can move in.
    A. be done                     B. doing                              C. to do                                D. done
  34. It is about time you -------------- harder for the next exam.
    A. worked                      B. working                          C. work                                D. to work
  35. If he really doesn’t feel like ------------ now, I suggested that he should go out for some fresh air.
    A. work                          B. to work                          C. worked                            D. working

 

TENSES (Thì)

1. Hiện tại đơn (Simple present)

                              S + V1/(s/es)

                              S + don’t / doesn’t + V1

                              Wh- + do / does + S + V1…?

* Dấu hiệu nhận biết:

                             every____ (every day, every week, every night,…..)

                             often, sometimes, usually, always, frequently, as a rule……

                             twice a week, once a week….

 

2. Hiện tại tiếp diễn (Present progressive)

                                      S + am / is / are + V-ing

                                      S + am / is are + not + V-ing

                                      Wh- + am / is / are + S + V-ing…?

         * Dấu hiệu nhận biết:

         - Câu bắt đầu bằng một mệnh lệnh như: Listen!, Look!, Pay attention!, Keep silent! Be quiet!....

            hoặc các cụm từ: now, right now, at the moment, at the present, today, while, next…(chỉ một dự định)

3. Hiện tại hoàn thành (Present perfect):   

S + have / has + V3/-ed

S + haven’t / hasn’t + V3/-ed

Wh- + have / has + S + V3/-ed…?

* Dấu hiệu nhận biết:                            

            never, ever, since, for, recently, lately, just,  already, so far, up to now, up to the present, until now,  before (trước đây), yet, (dùng trong câu phủ định và câu hỏi), many times, several times, how long, this is the first time / the second time, four times , five times

4. Quá khứ đơn (Simple Past)      

S + V2/-ed

                              S + didn’t + V1

                              Wh- + did + S + V1…?

* Dấu hiệu nhận biết:

                        yesterday ________ ( yesterday morning, yesterday afternoon,…….)

                        last _______ ( last year, last night, last week, last month….)

                        _______ ago ( two years ago, many months ago, ten minutes ago….)

                      in + year in the past ( một năm nào đó trong quá khứ: in 1999, in 2001…)

5. Quá khứ tiếp diễn (Past continuous):       

S + was / were + V-ing

                                       S + was / were + not + V-ing

                                       Wh- + was / were + S + V-ing…?

* Dấu hiệu nhận biết: 

                     At + giờ + thời gian trong quá khứ

                     At this/ that time + thời gian trong quá khứ

            Khi hai mệnh đề nối với nhau bằng chữ when hoặc while

 Hai hành động xảy ra trong quá khứ: hành động ngắn dùng quá khứ đơn; hành động dài dùng quá khứ tiếp diễn.

6. Quá khứ hoàn thành (Past perfect)       

S + had + V3/-ed

S + hadn’t + V3/-ed

Wh- + had + S + V3/-ed…?

* Dấu hiệu nhận biếtbefore, after, when, by the time, as soon as, as…., by + thời gian trong quá khứ

7. Tương lai đơn (Simple future):   

S + will / shall + V1

S + won’t / shan’t + V1

Wh- + will + S + V1…?

* Dấu hiệu nhận biết:

                     next… ( next week, next month,  …..), someday, tomorrow, soon, in + năm trong tương lai…at thời giờ trong tương lai

* Chú ý: Để diễn tả một hành động có dụ định hay một dự đoán trong tương lai, ta có thể dùng  BE GOING TO + V1:     

                         S + am / is / are + going to + V1

                        Ex:       - Where are you going to spend your summer holiday?

                                    - Look at those clouds! It is going to rain.

8. Tương lai hoàn thành (Future perfect):

S + will have + V3/-ed

S + won’t have + V3/-ed

Wh- + will + S + have + V3/-ed…?

* Cách dùng:

- Một hành động sẽ hoàn tất trước một thời điểm ở tương lai hay một hành động khác ở tương lai.

                     Ex: By lunch time, I will have typed five letters.

* Dấu hiệu nhận biết:   

                   by + mốc thời gian, by the time, by then

 

­ Exercise: Choose the best answer:

  1. I -------------- this film twice. 

           A. see                              B. saw                            C. will see                   D. have seen

  1. After -------------- her performance, she invited the audience to ask questions.
    A. she finishes                      B. finished                     C. finishing            D. she will finish
  2. His father -------------- of cancer last year.   

           A. will die                             B. has died                     C. died                   D. had died

  1. The train -------------- when we got to the station.
    A. just left                            B. just leaves                  C. has just left       D. had just left
  2. As soon as Martina saw the fire, she -------------- the fire department.
    A. was telephoning              B. telephoned                 C. had telephoned     D. has telephoned
  3. Before Jennifer won the lottery, she -------------- any kind of contest.
    A. hasn’t entered                 B. doesn’t enter             C. wasn’t entering       D. hadn’t entered
  4. Every time Parkas sees a movie made in India, he -------------- homesick.
    A. will have left                   B. felt                             C. feels                       D. is feeling
  5. Since I left Venezuelasix years ago, I -------------- to visit friends and family several times.
    A. return                  B. will have returned             C. am returning               D. have returned
  6. Yesterday while I was attending a sales meeting, Mathew -------------- on the company annual report.
    A. was working                    B. had been working      C. has worked          D. works
  7. When my parents -------------- for a visit tomorrow, they will see our new baby for the first time.
    A. will arrive                        B. arrived                       C. arrive                    D. will have arrived
  8. The last time I -------------- in Athens, the weather was hot and humid.
    A. had been                          B. was                            C. am                       D. will have been
  9. After the race --------------, the celebration began
    A. had been won                  B. is won                        C. will be won         D. has been won
  10. Andy -------------- out of the restaurant when he -------------- Jenny
    A. came/saw                B. is coming /saw          C. came/was seeing     D. was coming/had seen
  11. While he was washing his car, Mr. Brown -------------- a small dint in the rear fender.
    A. has discovered                B. was discovering         C. is discovering          D. discovered
  12. Linda has lost her passport again. It’s the second time this --------------.
    A. has happened                  B. happens                     C. happened                D. had happened
  13. At this time tomorrow, we -------------- our final exam.
    A. will have taking               B. will be taken              C. would take             D. will be taking
  14. The baby --------------. Don’t make so much noise.    
    A. sleep                                B. sleeps                         C. is sleeping            D. slept
  15. Peter said he -------------- a test the following day.
    A. had had                           B. will have                    C. has had                 D. would have
  16. It is not so hot today as it -------------- yesterday. 
    A. is                                      B. was                            C. would be               D. had been
  17. -------------- a party next Saturday. We have sent out the invitation.
    A. we had                            B. we have                     C. we’ll have             D. we have had
  18. I’m very tired -------------- over four hundred miles to day.
    A. I drive                             B. I’ve driven                 C. I’m driving         D. I’ve been driving
  19. I’m busy at the moment . -------------- on the computer.
    A. I work                             B. I’m worked               C. I’m working         D. I worked
  20. Our friends -------------- meet us at the airport tonight.
    A. are                                   B. are going to               C. go to                     D. will be to
  21. I will tell Anna all the news when -------------- her
    A. I’ll see                             B. I’m going to see        C. I see                    D. I’m seeing
  22. Don’t worry, I -------------- here to help you
    A. be                                    B. will be                        C. am going to be      D. won’t be
  23. When I entered the room, everyone --------------.
    A. has been dancing             B. was dancing              C. had danced                      D. danced
  24. Before the invention of the steamboat there -------------- no way to cross the ocean.
    A. has been                          B. could have been        C. had been                          D. would be
  25. He said that he -------------- his homework since 7 o’clock.
    A. had done                         B. did                             C. has done                          D. was doing
  26. Tom said everything -------------- ready when the match --------------.
    A. will be/starts          B. would be/started          C. is/started                     D. will be/started
  27. How long -------------- able to drive? - Since 1990.
    A. could you                        B. have you been           C. were you                          D. are you
  28. She won't get married until she -------------- 25 years old.
    A. is                                      B. will be                        C. had been                          D. was.
  29. Look. The yard is wet. It -------------- last night.
    A. must rain            B. couldn’t have rained       C. must have rained      D. should have rained
  30. After Mary -------------- her degree, she intends to work in her father's company.
    A. will finish                        B. is finishing                 C. finishes                              D. will have finished
  31. When he -------------- all the letters, he took them to the post office.
    A. has written                      B. had written                C. wrote                                  D. had been writing
  32. By the end of this month, I -------------- English for 6 years.
    A. have learnt                       B. will have learnt          C. had learnt                        D. learnt
  33. We -------------- in touch with each other for years.
    A. will not keep                   B. are not keeping          C. did not keep                    D. have not kept
  34. She has learnt French -------------- the age of five. 
    A. since                                B. for                              C. before                              D. in
  35. Tom -------------- before we arrived there.                  
    A. has left                            B. had left                      C. will leave                         D. leaves
  36. Up to now, I -------------- a lot of information about her.
    A. learnt                               B. have learnt                 C. will learn                          D. would learn
  37. Wait here until I -------------- you.                              
    A. am going to call               B. will call                      C. am calling                        D. call
  38. When I came to visit her, she -------------- a bath.      
    A. was having                      B. has                             C. is having                          D. had

 

REPORTED SPEECH         (Câu tường thuật)

I. Thay đổi ngôi (Đại từ nhân xưng, Đại từ sở hữu và Tính từ sở hữu)

1. Ngôi thứ nhất: dựa vào chủ từ của mệnh đề tường thuật; thường đổi sang ngôi thứ ba

I  →  He / She                    me →   him / her                my →  his / her

We → They                        us  → them                        our  → their

Ex: He said: “I learned English.”

      He said that ---------------------------------- English.

Ex: She said to me, “My mother gives me a present.”

      She told me that -------------------------------------------------

     2. Ngôi thứ hai: (You, your)

-  Xét ý nghĩa của câu và đổi cho phù hợp, thường đổi dựa vào túc từ của mệnh đề tường thuật

Ex: Mary said: “You are late again.”

      Mary said that you were late again.

Ex: “I will meet you at the airport”, he said to me.

       He told me that --------------------------------------------------------------

     3. Ngôi thứ ba (He / She / Him / Her / His / They / Them / Their): giữ nguyên, không đổi

 

II. Thay đổi về thì trong câu:

DIRECT

INDIRECT

Simple present  - V1 /Vs(es)

Present progressive – am / is / are + V-ing

Present perfect – have / has + P.P    

Present perfect progressive – have / has been +V-ing

Simple past – V2 / -ed

Past progressive – was / were + V-ing

Simple future – will + V1

Future progressive  will be + V-ing

Simple past – V2 / V-ed

Past progressive – was / were + V-ing

Past perfect – had + P.P

Past perfect progressive -  had been + V-ing

Past perfect – had + P.P

Past perfect progressive – had been +V-ing

Future in the past - would + V1

Future progressive in the past - would be + V-ing

 

III. Thay đổi các trạng từ chỉ thời gian và nơi chốn:

DIRECT

INDIRECT

Now

Here

This

These

Today

Yesterday

Last year

Tonight

Tomorrow

Next month

Ago

Then

There

That

Those

That day

The day before / the previous day

The year before / the previous year

That night

The following day / the next day

The following month / the next month

Before

 

CÁC THAY ĐỔI CỤ THỂ CHO TỪNG LOẠI CÂU TRONG LỜI NÓI GIÁN TIẾP

1. COMMANDS / REQUESTS (Câu mệnh lệnh, câu đề nghị)

  - Mệnh lệnh khẳng định:

   Direct:             S + V + O: “Vo + O …”

   Indirect:          S + asked / told + O + to + Vo + ….

Ex:  He said to her: “Keep silent, please.”     →  He told her ------------------------------------

       “Wash your hands before having dinner, Lan.” The mother said.

     → The mother told Lan ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

  - Mệnh lệnh phủ định:

Direct:                 S + V + O: “Don’t + V1 + …”

Indirect:              S + asked / told + O + not + to+ V1 ….

Ex: “Don’t forget to phone me this afternoon,” he said.

        → He reminded me --------------------------------------- ---------------

       The teacher said to the students: “Don’t talk in the class.”

      → The teacher -------------------------------------------------------------------

   Tùy theo ngữ cảnh trong lời nói động từ tường thuật said hoặc said to có thể đổi thành told, asked, advised, persuaded, directed, begged, encouraged,

Ex: The doctor said to his patient: “Do exercise regularly.”

     → The doctor ------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. STATEMENT (Câu trần thuật)

Direct:            S + V + (O)  : “clause”

Indirect:         S + told / said + (O) + (that) + clause

    Note: said to →  told

Ex: Tom said, “I want to visit my friend this weekend.”  

      → Tom said (that) ------------------------------------------------------------------------

      She said to me, “I am going to Dalat next summer.”

      →  She told me (that) -------------------------------------------------------------------

3. QUESTIONS (Câu hỏi)

  1. a.      Yes – No question

Direct:           S + V + (O) : “Aux. V + S + V1 + O….?”

Indirect:        S + asked + O + if / whether + S + V + O ….

Ex: He asked: “Have you ever been toJapan, Mary?”   →     He asked Mary --------------------------------

      “Did you go out last night, Tan?” I asked   →  I asked Tan -------------------------------------------------

  1. b.      Wh – question

        Direct:           S + V + (O): “Wh- + Aux. V + S + V1 + O ?”

        Indirect:        S + asked + O + Wh- + S + V + O.

Ex: “How long are you waiting for the bus?” he asked me.

     →  He asked me -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

      “Where did you go last night, Tom?” the mother asked.

     → The mother asked Tom ----------------------------------------------------------------------------

4. DANH ĐỘNG TỪ (V-ING) TRONG LỜI NÓI GIÁN TIẾP

  1. a.      Reporting Verb + V-ing + ….

Deny (phủ nhận), admit (thừa nhận), suggest (đề nghị), regret (nuối tiếc), appreciate (đánh giá cao, cảm kích)

Ex: Peter said: “I didn’t steal the painting.”      →  Peter denied stealing the painting.

      “Why don’t we go out for a walk?” said the boy.        →    The boy suggested going out for a walk.

  1. b.      Reporting Verb + (Someone) + Preposition + V-ing  + ….

-          thank someone for         (cám ơn ai về ….)

-          accuse someone of        (buộc tội ai về …)

-          congratulate someone on      (chúc mừng ai về ….)

-          warn someone against          (cảnh báo ai về ….)

-          dream of                               (mơ về …)

-          object to                               (chống đối về ….)

-          apologize someone for       (xin lỗi ai về …)

-          insist on                              (khăng khăng dòi …)

-          complain about                   (phàn nàn về ….)

Ex: “I’m happy to know that you win the game. Congratulations!”, Jim said to Mary.

      →    Jim --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

        I said to the boy: “Don’t play ball near the restricted area.”

     →     I -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

       Daisy said: “I want to be a famous singer in the world.”  

  →     Daisy --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Note:

1. Why don’t you / Why not / How about   suggested + (someone) + V-ing …

Ex: “Why don’t you send her some flowers?” he said.

      →  He suggested me sending her some flowers.

2. Let’s   suggested + V-ing …

   Let’s not   suggested + not + V-ing …

Ex: “Let’s meet outside the cinema,” he said.    

  →  He suggested meeting outside the cinema.

      She said: “Let’s not talk about that problem again.”

  →  She suggested not talking about that problem again.

3. Shall we / It’s a good idea  →   suggested + V-ing …

Ex: “It’s a good idea to go for a picnic this weekend,” she said.

  →  She suggested going for a picnic that weekend.

 

5. ĐỘNG TỪ NGUYÊN MẪU (TO-INFINITIVE) TRONG LỜI NÓI GIÁN TIẾP

a. Reporting Verb + To-inf …

- agree                                     demand (đòi hỏi)                             guarantee (bảo đảm)

- hope                                      promise                                            swear (thề)

- threaten (đe dọa)                  volunteer                                          offer (đưa ra đề nghị)

- refuse                                    consent (bằng lòng)                         decide

 Ex: “I will give you my book if you need it,” said my friend.

         → My friend offered to give me her book if I needed it.

b. Reporting Verb + Object + To-inf …

- ask                                        advise                                               command (ra lệnh)

- expect                                    instruct (hướng dẫn)                       invite

- order (ra lệnh)                      persuade (thuyết phục)                    recommend (khuyên)

- remind (nhắc nhở)               encourage (cổ vũ)                            tell

- urge (thúc giục)                    warn (cảnh báo)                              want

Ex: “Don’t forget to lock the door,” I said to my sister.

        I reminded my sister to lock the door.

       Ann said: “Come to my place whenever you are free.”

       Ann invited me to come to her place whenever I was free.

Note:

1. Lời đề nghị:  Would you / could you / Will you / Can you →   asked + someone + to-inf

                           Would you mind / Do you mind + V-ing   →   asked + someone + to-inf

Ex: “Can you read the instructions again?” she said.

      →  She asked me to read the instructions again.

       He said: “Would you mind opening the door, please?”

       →  He asked me to open the door.

2. Lời mời:  Would you like / Will you   →    invited someone + to-inf

Ex: “Will you have  lunch with me?” he said.

     → He invited me to have lunch with him.

3. Lời khuyên:      Had better / If I were you / Why don’t you  → advised someone + to-inf

Ex: “If I were you, I would phone her,” he said.

     →  He advised me to phone her.

 

6. CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN TRONG LỜI NÓI GIÁN TIẾP

Nếu trong lời nói trực tiếp có câu điều kiện thì chỉ có câu điều kiện loại 1thay đổi về thì, câu điều kiện loại 2 và 3 vẫn giữ nguyên hình thức động từ của chúng.

Ex: “If I have time, I will visit her,” he said.

     →  He said that if he had time he would visit her.

      She said: “If I had enough money, I would buy a car.”

     →  She said that if she had enough money she would buy a car.

       He said to me : “If I had met you, I would have told you the truth.”

     →  He told me that if he had met me he would have told me the truth.

­ Exercise: Choose the best answer:

  1. He asked them --------------.
    A. help him                 B. should help him                  C. to help him      D. help to him
  2. She said that she -------------- there the year before.
    A. went                       B. had gone                             C. would go                            D. goes
  3. Peter asked Jane why -------------- the film on T.V the previous night.
    A. didn’t she watch                                                    B. hadn’t she watched           

           C. she doesn’t watch                                                   D. she hadn’t watched

  1. They said they -------------- us if we needed.
    A. help                        B. helped                                 C. would help              D. had helped
  2. He advised them -------------- in class.
    A. to not talk               B. not to talk                           C. to talk not               D. don’t talk
  3. She said to us “Don’t be late again”.
    A. She said us not to be late again.                                      B. She told us to be not late again.
    C. She told to us not to be late again.                                  D. She told us not to be late again.
  4. “John shouldn’t have behaved so badly.”, said Janet.
    A. Janet doesn't like John's behaviors.                                 B. Janet was angry with John.  
    C. Janet disliked John.                                                         D. Janet objected to John's behaviors.

       5. John said “You had better not lend them any money, Daisy”.
         A. John said Daisy not to lend them any money.                  

         B. John advised Daisy should not  lend any money.

          C.John said to Daisy not lend them any money.  

          D. John advised Daisy not to lend them any money.

6. “I’m sorry I have to leave so early’, he said.
A. He apologized for having to leave early.      B. He apologized to have to leave early.
C. He apologized that he has to leave early       D. He apologized to have left early.

7. “Can I borrow your pen please, Sam?”, said Gillian.
A. Gillian asked Sam if she can borrow his pen.      

B. Gillian asked Sam if she could borrow his pen.

C. Gillian asked Sam she can borrow his pen.            

D. Gillian asked Sam she could borrow his pen.

8. “Where did you go last night, Nam?”, said Hoa
A. Hoa said to Nam where had he gone the night before. 
B. Hoa said to Nam where he had gone the night before.
C. Hoa told Nam where he had gone last night.
D. Hoa askedNam where he had gone the night before.

9. “What were you doing last night, Mr. John?” The police asked.
A. The police asked what were you doing last night, Mr. John.
B. The police asked Mr. John what he had been doing the night before.
C. The police asked Mr. John what had he been done the night before.
D. The police asked Mr. John what he had done the night before.

10. Some one was wondering if the taxi -------------- yet.
A. had arrived                B. arrived                             C. arrives         D. had arrived

11. The government has announced that taxes --------------.
A. would be raised         B. had been raised               C. were raised        D. will be raised

12. Some one -------------- the tickets are free.  

          A. said me    B. said me that                                   C. told to me         D. told me

13. He said he would do it --------------.
A. yesterday                   B. the following day            C. the previous day        D. the day before

14. He proved that the earth -------------- round the Sun.   
A. had gone                   B. was going                        C. goes                          D. would go

15. I told you -------------- the computer, didn’t it?
A. to switch off             B. don’t switch off              C. not switch off          D. switch off

16. Claire wanted to know what time --------------.
A. do the banks close     B. the banks closed    C. did the banks close     D. the banks would close

17. Ann -------------- and left.
A. said good bye            B. said me good bye            C. told me good bye       D. goodbye me

 

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES  (Câu điều kiện)

TYPE 1: điều kiện có thể xảy ra ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai

 If + S +  V1(s /es)

                

          S+ will / shall / can + Vo

 

          

EX: If I save enough money, I will buy a new car.

TYPE 2: điều kiện không có thật ở hiện tại

                V2/-ed

If + S +

                didn’t + V1     

            could / would/ should + V1

S +

           couldn’t / wouldn’t / shouldn’t  + V1

EX: If I were you, I would tell the truth.

TYPE 3: điều kiện không có thật ở quá khứ

                had + V3/-ed

If + S +

                hadn’t + V3 /-ed    

            could / would/ should + have + V3/-ed

S +

           couldn’t / wouldn’t / shouldn’t  + have + V3/-ed

  EX: If I had arrived ten minutes earlier, I would have got a seat.

 - Note: Ta có thể lược bỏ "If" đi nhưng phải đảo ngữ

  EX: Had I arrived ten minutes earlier, I would have got a seat.

- Unless = If … not

- Đổi từ if sang unless:

IF

UNLESS

Khẳng định

Khẳng định (động từ trong mệnh đề chính đổi sang phủ định)

Phủ định

Khẳng định (mệnh đề chính không thay đổi)

 

Ex: If we had more rain, our crops would grow faster.

      Unless -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 If she doesn’t work harder, she will fail the exam.

     Unless ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

- Dạng câu: Mệnh lệnh + or + Clause

- If you don’t + V1, Clause

- If you aren’t + …, Clause

Ex: Be carefull or you will cut yourself.                   If -------------------------------------------------------

       Go away or I will call the police.                       If -------------------------------------------------------

- NỐI 2 CÂU ĐƠN DÙNG “ IF”

 - Note:

            + Diễn tả 1 hành động có thể xảy ra ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai → loại 1

            + Diễn tả 1 hành động không thể xảy ra ở hiện tại (động từ ở hiện tại) → loại 2

            + Diễn tả 1 hành động không thể xảy ra ở quá khứ (động từ ở quá khứ) → loại 3

EX: Hurry up or you will be late.

→ If you don’t hurry, you will be late.

EX: She doesn’t have a car. She doesn’t go out in the evening.

→ If she had a car, she would go out in the evening.

EX: We cancelled the meeting because Peter didn’t come.

→ If Peter had come, we wouldn’t have cancelled the meeting.

→ Had Peter come, we wouldn’t have cancelled the meeting

EXERCISE:

Supply correct form of the verbs in parentheses.

1. What you (do) ------------------if I hadn’t lend you the money?
2. If you had asked me for ticket, I (get)-------------------- you some tickets.
3. I (not marry) ------------------------him If I had known what he was like.
4. I wouldn’t have hired a car if I (know)------------------ how expensive it was.
5. If we (go) ------------------to the cinema earlier, we wouldn’t have missed the start of the film.
6. If I had been born a year earlier, I (have) -------------------to do military service.
7. If you (ask) ---------------------me , I would have lend you my car.
8. If I had gone to university, I (get)-------------------- a better job.
9. I (not go) ---------------------out yesterday , If you had asked me not to.
10. I could have given you a lift if my car (not break)----------------- down.
11. I (not go)---------------------- to Britain if I had known what was going to happen.
12. I would have stay longer if he( want) ---------------------me to.
13. I (not come) -------------------to this school if I had known it was like.
14. We would have gone to his party if we (be) --------------------able to find a baby – sister.
15. . I (visit ) -----------------------you in the hospital if I had known you were there.
Exercises 3 : Complete the sentences with the words in parentheses
1.I might have enough time tonight.
→  If I (have)---------------------------- enough time, I (write) ------------------a letter to my cousin.
2. The weather is terrible today.
→  If the weather (be)-------------------------------- good, I (go) --------------for a five - mile - walk.
3. Mary didn’t come to my party last week.
→ If she (come)-------------------------- to my party, she (meet)----------------- my friends.
4. Snow is predicted for tomorrow.
→ If it (snow) ------------------------tomorrow, I( stay) ----------------------at home.
5. Jack didn’t study for the test.
→ If he( study)--------------------------, he( pass) ------------------it.
6. Air plane tickets are expensive.
→ If they( be) ------------------cheap, I (fly)--------------------- to Ho Chi Minh city for weekend.
7. May be the weather will be nice tomorrow.
→ If the weather( be) -------------------nice, I( go)-------------------- for a long walk.
8. Unfortunately, I don’t have enough money.
→  If I( have) ------------------------enough money, I( buy)--------------------- a ticket to the rock concert.
9. I didn’t know it was your birthday yesterday.
→ If I( know) ---------------------it was your birthday yesterday. I (get)-------------------- you a present.
10. I’m tired.
→ If I (be not)---------------------- tired, I( help) ------------------------you.

­ Exercise: Rewrite these sentences:

  1. Hurry up or we will be late for the last bus.

 If ..........................................................................................................................................................................

  1. It was very cold yesterday, so we couldn’t go swimming.

 If ..........................................................................................................................................................................

  1. He had a flu because he went out in the rain last night.

 If ..........................................................................................................................................................................

  1. Ellen didn’t have much money in the bank, so she was very worried.

If ..........................................................................................................................................................................

  1. Stop talking or you won’t understand the lesson.

 Unless ..................................................................................................................................................................

  1. She can’t buy the dictionary because she doesn’t have enough money.

 If ..........................................................................................................................................................................

­ Exercise: Choose the best answer:

  1. If Jake ------------- to go on the trip, would you have gone?
    A. doesn’t agree             B. didn’t agree               C. hadn’t agreed                D. wouldn’t agree
  2. If energy ------------- inexpensive and unlimited, many things in the world would be different.
    A. is                                B. will be                        C. would be                            D. were
  3. Unless you ------------- all of my questions, I can’t do anything to help you.
    A. answered                   B. answer                       C. would answer                D. are answering
  4. Had you told me that this was going to happen, I ------------- it.
    A. hadn’t believed         B. don’t believe     C. can’t believe        D. would never have believed
  5. -------------- interested in that subject, I would try to learn more about it.
    A. If I am                       B. Should I                    C. I was                                   D. Were I
  6. If I had enough money, --------------.
    A. I will buy that house                                             B. I am buy that house     

     C. I can buy that house                                                D. I could buy that house

7.  Had I had time, I -------------- to the beach with you this weekend.
A. will come                   B. would come                  C. will have come         D. would have come

8 If he -------------- that she was in the hospital, he -------------- to see her.
A. knows/ will come                                                   B. knew/ would come
C. had known/ would have come                               D. has known/will have come

9. If everything is all right, we -------------- our work on time.
A. complete                    B. are completing              C. have completed      D. will complete

10. If I were you, I would work hard.
A. You would rather not work so hard                      B. You should work harder               
C. You should work with me.                                    D. Do not work so hard.

11. We didn’t visit the museum because we had no time.                                                                      
A. If we have time, we will visit the museum.  
C. If we had had time, we would have visited the museum.
B. If we had time, we would visit the museum. 
D. If we had had time, we will have visited the museum.

12. -------------- I have time, I will go with you. 
A. If                               B. Unless                           C. So                                    D. So that

 13. -------------- harder, you would have passed the exam.
A. If you studied           B. If had you studied       C. Had you studied       D. Were you studied

14. If the police hadn’t saved me, I -------------- at that time.
A. will die                      B. would die                     C. will have died           D. would have died

15. -------------- at 4 o’clock, we would have missed seeing Bob.
A. If we had gone          B. Had we gone                C. because we had gone      D. A and B

 

RELATIVE CLAUSES  (Mệnh đề quan hệ)

I. CÁC ĐẠI TỪ QUAN HỆ:

1. WHO:

- làm chủ từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ

- thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người

 ….. N (person) + WHO + V + O

2. WHOM:

- làm túc từ cho động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ

- thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người

…..N (person) + WHOM + S + V

3. WHICH:

- làm chủ từ hoặc túc từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ

- thay thế cho danh từ chỉ vật

….N (thing) + WHICH + V + O

….N (thing) + WHICH + S + V

4. THAT:

      - có thể thay thế cho vị trí của who, whom, which trong mệnh đề quan hệ quan hệ xác định

* Các trường hợp thường dùng “that”:

- khi đi sau các hình thức so sánh nhất

- khi đi sau các từ: only, the first, the last

- khi danh từ đi trước bao gôm cả người và vật

- khi đi sau các đại từ bất định, đại từ phủ định, đại từ chỉ số lượng: no one, nobody, nothing, anyone, anything, anybody, someone, something, somebody, all, some, any, little, none.

Ex: He was the most interesting person that I have ever met.

      It was the first time that I heard of it.

      These books are all that my sister left me.

      She talked about the people and places that she had visited.

* Các trường hợp không dùng that:

- trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định

- sau giới từ

5. WHOSE: dùng để chỉ sở hữu cho danh từ chỉ người hoặc vật, thường thay cho các từ: her, his, their, hoặc hình thức ‘s

…..N (person, thing) + WHOSE + N + V ….

6. WHY: mở đầu cho mệnh đề quan hệ chỉ lý do, thường thay cho cụm for the reason, for that reason.

…..N (reason) + WHY + S + V …

Ex: I don’t know the reason. You didn’t go to school for that reason.

      →  I don’t know the reason why you didn’t go to school.

7. WHERE: thay thế từ chỉ nơi chốn, thường thay cho there

….N (place) + WHERE + S + V ….

(WHERE = ON / IN / AT + WHICH)

Ex: a/ The hotel wasn’t very clean. We stayed t that hotel.

      →  The hotel where we stayed wasn’t very clean.

      →  The hotel at which we stayed wasn’t very clean.

8. WHEN: thay thế từ chỉ thời gian, thường thay cho từ then

….N (time) + WHEN + S + V …

(WHEN = ON / IN / AT + WHICH)

Ex: Do you still remember the day? We first met on that day.

     →  Do you still remember the day when we first met?

     →  Do you still remember the day on which we first met?

     I don’t know the time. She will come back then.

     →  I don’t know the time when she will come back.

II. CÁC LOẠI MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ:

  1. Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định (Defining relative clause): Được sử dụng khi danh từ là danh từ không xác định.

Ex: The city which I visited last summer is very beautiful.

                      (Defining relative clause)

  1. 2. Mệnh đề quan hệ không hạn định (Non-defining relative clause): Được sử dụng khi danh từ là danh từ xác định.

Ex: Dalat, which I visited last summer, is very beautiful.

               (Non-defining relative clause)

Note: để biết khi nào dùng mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định, ta lưu ý các điểm sau:

-          Khi danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa là một danh từ riêng

-          Khi danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa là một tính từ sở hữu (my, his, her, their)

-          Khi danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa la một danh từ đi với this , that, these, those

III. MỘT SỐ LƯU Ý TRONG MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ:

1. Nếu trong mệnh đề quan hệ có giới từ thì giới từ có thể đặt trước hoặc sau mệnh đề quan hệ (chỉ áp dụng với whom và which.)

Ex: Mr. Brown is a nice teacher. We studied with him last year.

      →  Mr. Brown, with whom we studied last year, is a nice teacher.

      →  Mr. Brown, whom we studied with last year, is a nice teacher.

2. Có thể dùng which thay cho cả mệnh đề đứng trước.

Ex: She can’t come to my birthday party. That makes me sad.

    → She can’t come to my birthday party, which makes me sad.

3. Ở vị trí túc từ, whom có thể được thay bằng who.

Ex: I’d like to talk to the man whom / who I met at your birthday party.

IV. CÁCH RÚT GỌN MỆNH ĐỀ QUAN HỆ:

1. Mệnh đề quan hệ được rút thành cụm phân từ:

* Nếu mệnh đề quan hệ là mệnh đề chủ động thì rút thành cụm hiện tại phân từ (V-ing).

Ex: a/ The man who is standing over there is my father.

     →  The man-----------------------------------------------------------------------

      b/ The couple who live next door to me are professors.

     →  The couple------------------------------------------------------------------

* Nếu mệnh đề quan hệ là mệnh đề bị động thì rút thành cụm quá khứ phân từ (V3/ed).

Ex: a/ The instructions that are given on the front page are very important.

    →  The instructions--------------------------------------------------------------

      b/ The book which was bought by my mother is interesting.

    →   The book--------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Mệnh đề quan hệ được rút thành cụm động từ nguyên mẫu:

Mệnh đề quan hệ được rút thành cụm động từ nguyên mẫu (To-infinitive) khi trước đại từ quan hệ có các cụm từ: the first, the second, the last, the only hoặc hình thức so sánh bậc nhất.

Ex: a/ John was the last person that got the news.

  →    John was the last person-------------------------------------

     b/ He was the best player that got the prize.

  →    He was the best played---------------------------------------

    c/ He was the best player that we admire.

   →   He was the best player------------------------------------------

­ Exercise: Choose the best answer:

  1. The boy with -------------- I have talked is very successful student.
    A. who                              B. whom                           C. that                               D. for that
  2. The composition -------------- by Jane was really interesting.
    A. to write                         B. writing                          C. wrote                            D. written
  3. Fleming’s discovery of penicillin, --------------, had a major influence on the lives of people in the 20th century.
    A. which was awarded the Nobel Prize               B. which awarded the Nobel Prize
    C. that he was awarded the Nobel Prize              D. for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize
  4. I want you to meet the woman --------------
    A. who taught me how to drive                                        B. teaching me how to drive
    C. that is taught me how to drive                                     D. who is taught me how to drive
  5. Mr. Pike, -------------- is our boss, has just come back from Paris.
    A. who                           B. whom                              C. that                   D. which
  6. The girl -------------- is my new friend.
    A. who is sitting on the bench                                          B. that is sitting on the bench   

    C. sitting on the bench                                                        D. all are correct

7. We don’t know the reason -------------- Peter is absent today.  
A. who                           B. which                               C. that                                     D. why

8. Dr Smith is a good surgeon. He lives next door.
A. Dr Smith that lives next door is a good surgeon.   

     B. Dr Smith who lives next door is a good surgeon.
    C. Dr Smith, who lives next door, is a good surgeon. 

     D. Dr Smith, whom lives next door, is a good surgeon.

9. The reading table -------------- I put my books is in the corner of the room.
A. when                         B. where                              C. why                  D. whose

10. It is him -------------- helped me last night.   

        A. who                     B. that                         C. which                             D. whose

11. Anybody -------------- finishes that test  early can leave.                                            
A. that                            B. whom                              C. why                    D. when

12. He is the good colleague --------------.
A. to work for us with                                                B. to us for working with      

     C. for working with us                                                 D. for us to work with

13.Mary was the last applicant -------------- by that interviewer.
A. to be interviewed                                                   B. to be interviewing             

     C. to have interviewed                                                 D. to interview

14.I’m hungry. Is there any food -------------- ?              
A. to be eaten                 B. to eat                               C. eating                D. for me eating

15.Dien Bien Phuis a place -------------- our army won a resounding victory in 1954. 
A. where                        B. what                                C. which                                  D. that

Reduce relative clauses into relative phrases

1. Be sure to follow the instructions that are given at the top of the page.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................2. Students who arrive late will not be permitted to enter the classroom.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................3. John, who was taken by surprise, hardly knew what to say.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................4. The people who are waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................5. We drove along the road that was still flooded after the heavy rain.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................6. The scientists who are researching the causes of cancer are making progress

@..................................................................................................................................................................................

7. The wild ox which is kept at Nam Cat Tien National Park is of a special kind

@..................................................................................................................................................................................

8. The helicopter which was flying toward the lake made a low droning sound.

@ …………………………………………………………………………………………………………  

Combine sentence using: preposition + whom/which

1. The movie was interesting. We went to it.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................

2. I couldn’t understand the woman. I talked to her on the phone.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................

3. I want to tell you about the party. I went to it last night.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................

4. The music was gentle. We listened to it last night.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................

5. Alicelikes the foreign family. She is living with them.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................

6.The market has refresh vegetables. I usually go to it.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................

7. The man is over there. I told you about him.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................

8. The film is fantastic. They are talking about it.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................

9. She’s the nurse. We gave the flowers to her.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................

10. The teacher is Mr Pike. We studied with him last year.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................

Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ sử dụng Ving, V hoặc Vto

1.Neil Armstrong was the first man who walked on the moon

@..................................................................................................................................................................................2.I come from a city that is located in the southern part of the country.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................3. The children who attend that school receive a good education.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................4. The scientists who are researching the causes of cancer are making progress.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................5. They live in a house that was built in

@..................................................................................................................................................................................6.We have an apartment which overlooks the park.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................7.Yuri Gagarin became the first man who flied into space.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................8. We stood on the bridge which connects the two halves of the building.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................9. I come from a city which is located in the southern part of the country

@..................................................................................................................................................................................10.The vegetables which are sold in this supermarket are grown without chemicals.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................11. Do you know the woman who is coming toward us ?

@..................................................................................................................................................................................12.The people who was waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................13.I come from a city that is located in the southern part of the country.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................14.They live in a house that was built in

@..................................................................................................................................................................................15 He was the first man who left the burning building.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................16.The couple who live in the house next door are both college professors

@..................................................................................................................................................................................17. The people who are waiting for the bus in the rain are getting wet.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................18. The students who did not come to the class yesterday explain their absence to the teacher.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................19. Did you get the message which concerned the special meeting ?

@..................................................................................................................................................................................20. Lan is the second student who entered the classroom this morning.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................21. The psychologists who study the nature of sleep have made important discoveries.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................22. He was the only man who reached the top.

@...................................................................................................................................................................23. He is always the first who comes and the last who goes.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................24.People who listen to very loud music may suffer gradual hearing loss.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................25.He was the second man who was saved in the fire.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................26.I haven’t got anything that I could open a bottle of wine with.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................27.The Queen Elizabeth is the largest ship which has been built on the island.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................28.The fifth man who was interviewed was completely unsuitable.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................29.This is the third who is late for the meeting today.

@..................................................................................................................................................................................30.Am I the next person who joins the interview ?

@..................................................................................................................................................................................

 

CLEFT SENTENCES   (Câu chẻ)

Câu chẻ được dùng để nhấn mạnh một thành phần của câu như chủ ngữ, túc từ hay trạng từ

1. Nhấn mạnh chủ từ (Subject focus)

a. It + is / was + Noun / pronoun (person) + who + V + O …

Ex: My brother collected these foreign stamps.

 → It was my brother who collected these foreign stamps.

b. It + is / was + Noun (thing) + that + V + O …

Ex: Her absence at the party made me sad.

 → It was her absence at the party that made me sad.

2. Nhấn mạnh túc từ (Object focus)

a. It + is / was + Noun / pronoun (person) + who(m) + S + V…

Ex: I met Daisy on the way to school.

 → It was Daisy who(m) I met on the way to school.

Note: Khi nhấn mạnh túc từ ta có thể dùng who thay cho whom nhưng khi nhấn mạnh chủ từ thì không dùng whom thay cho who.

b. It + is / was + Noun (thing) + that + S + V …

Ex: My brother bought an old motorbike from our neighbor.

 → It was an old motorbike that my brother bought from our neighbor.

3. Nhấn mạnh trạng từ (Adverbial focus)

It + is / was + Adverbial phrase + that + S + V …

Ex: - We first met in December.

→ It was in December that we first met.

- Phan Thanh Gian was born in this village.

→ It was in this village that Phan Thanh Gian was born.

4. Câu chẻ bị động (Cleft sentences in the passive)

a. It + is / was + Noun / pronoun (person) + who + be + P.P…

Ex: Fans gave that singer a lot of flowers.

→ It was that singer who was given a lot of flowers.

b. It + is / was + Noun (thing) + that + be + P.P…

Ex: People talk about this film.

→ It is this film that is talked about.

- Fans gave that singer a lot of flowers.

→ It was a lot of flowers that were given to that singer.

Rewrite the sentences to focus attention on the underlined information. Using structure” it is / was ... that”
2
1. She bought the car from Tom.

…………………………………………………………………..

22. My secretary sent the bill to Mr. Harding yesterday.

…………………………………………………………………..

23. We are coming to stay with Jane this weekend. 

…………………………………………………………………..

24. The president makes the important decisions.

…………………………………………………………………..

25. I’m looking forward to physics exam.

…………………………………………………………………..

26. I lost my wallet somewhere in there.

…………………………………………………………………..

27. I was born and grew up in the village.

…………………………………………………………………..

28. My teacher helped me a lot of with my study last semester.

…………………………………………………………………..

29. The headmaster gave Tam a bicycle as a scholarship.

…………………………………………………………………..

30. Your carelessness caused the accident

…………………………………………………………………..

 

CONJUNCTIONS  (Liên từ)

 

Các liên từ cặp đôi như both … and, not only … but also, either …or, neither … nor được dùng để cấu tạo cấu trúc song hành. Từ, cụm từ hay mệnh đề được nối liền bởi những liên từ này luôn có cùng cấu trúc, chức năng hoặc từ loại.

1. both … and (vừa …vừa …, cả …lẫn …)

Ex: She is both intelligent and beautiful.  (adjectives)

      Both his brother and his sister are students. (nouns)

Note: Khi hai chủ từ được nối liền bởi both … and, động từ ở hình thức số nhiều.

2. not only … but also (không những / chỉ … mà  còn)

Ex: He studies not only English but also French.   (nouns)

      The film was not only boring but also long.     (adjectives)

      She not only sings beautifully but also plays the piano well.

3. either …or (hoặc …hoặc)

Ex: You either must work hard or will fail.   (verbs)

       Either you or he is going to be on duty.  (pronouns)

4. neither … nor (không … cũng không)

Ex: She likes neither tea nor coffee.   (nouns)

      My father neither smokes nor drinks.  (verbs)

Note:

- Khi hai chủ từ được nối bởi not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor, động từ hòa hợp với chủ từ ngay trước nó.

Ex: Not only his friends but also his brother gives him presents.

- Khi not only … but also nối liền hai mệnh đề và đứng đầu câu, chúng ta phải đảo ngữ mệnh đề thứ nhất.

Ex: Not only does he speak English but he also speaks French.

- Động từ trong câu có cặp liên từ neither … nor luôn ở dạng khẳng định

Ex:  My father neither smokes nor drinks.

 

Exercise:

4. Both Son and Vinh like English. __________ of them likes literature.

A.  None                     B. Neither                   C. Either                                  D. Both

5.  His recreations include golf, football and shooting. .

A. sports                      B. activities                 C. pastimes                              D. pleasures

6. In Britain, the most common leisure activities are home-based.

A. regular                    B. popular                   C. standard                             D. distinctive

5. Neither she nor I ________ responsible for that. It isn’t our duty.

A. are                          B.  is                            C. am                                       D.  have

7.  It is ___ that can speak 6 languages in our office.

A. he                           B. him                         C. his                                       D. her

8. My parents want me           to study         to behave well.

A. either/or                B. neither/nor               C. either/both                         D.  not only/but also

9. It is the event ____ a lot.

A. has been talked about                                            B. that has been talked bout

C. Has talked about                                                    D. that has talked bout

10. She ____ hard but also gets on well with her classmates.

A. doesn’t only study                                                 B. studies not only     

C. not only studies                                                      D. not studies only

11. The hotel is neither spacious ____.

A. or comfortable        B. nor comfortable      C. or comfort                          D. nor comfort           

12. Not only John but also his two brothers ____ football as their recreation every weekend.

A. play                        B. plays                       C. were playing                       D. has play

13. Now women work both before ____ after having their children.

A. or                            B. also                         C. nor                                      D. and

14. Neither the TV nor the video sets ____ properly.

A. works                     B. work                       C. has worked                         D. is working

15. The most common____ activities in my country are home based.

A. test                         B. leisure                     C. practice                               D. freedom

Combine each pair of sentences into one, using the conjunctions in brackets.

18. She’s at the office. She’s at the airport. (Either ............. or)

.........................................................................................................................

19. Paul’s at home. Paul’s at the gym. (Either .................... or)

....................................................................................................................

20. Chris didn’t have time to take a holiday. Sheila didn’t have time to take a holiday.(neither .... nor) ......................................................................................................................

21. David doesn’t play tennis. David doesn’t play table-tennis. (Neither ......... nor)

...................................................................................................................

22.Nam’s handsome.Nam’s intelligent. (Not only ................ but also)

.......................................................................................................................

23. Mai plays the guitar well. Mai dances beautifully. (Not only ......... but also)

.....................................................................................................................

24. You can have fish for dinner. You can have chicken for dinner. (Both ............. and)

.........................................................................................................................

25. They came late. They left early. (Not only ................. but also)

................................................................................................................................

 

COULD / BE ABLE TO  

 

1. COULD: là dạng quá khứ của can, dùng diễn tả:

- khả năng (phổ quát, chung chung) trong quá khứ

Ex: When I was six, I could drive a bike.

- lời yêu cầu lich sự

Ex: Could you show me the way to the post office?

- điều gì đó có thể xảy ra ở hiện tại hoặc tương lai nhưng không chắc chắn

Ex: It could rain this afternoon. (Có thể chiều nay trời sẽ mưa.)

2. BE ABLE TO: có hình thức quá khứ là was / were able to + V1, diễn tả sự cố gắng hoàn tất một hành động trong một tình huống đặc biệt.

Ex: The fire spread through the building quickly but we all were able to escape.

       The player hurt in his leg, but he was able to play to the end.

 

TAG QUESTIONS (Câu hỏi đuôi)

Câu hỏi đuôi gồm có hai phần: câu nói (statement) và phần đuôi (tag)

statement, tag?

 

 

                                        

 

 

1. Quy tắc chung:

- Câu nói và phần đuôi luôn ở dạng đối nhau

 
 

câu nói khẳng định, đuôi phủ định?

câu nói phủ định, đuôi khẳng định?

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ex: The children are playing in the yard, aren’t they?

       They can’t swim, can they?

- Chủ từ của câu nói là đại từ, ta lặp lại đại từ này

Ex: She is a doctor, isn’t she?

- Chủ từ là danh từ, ta dùng đại từ tương ứng thay thế

Ex: People speak English all over the world, don’t they?

- Đại từ bất định nothing, everything: được thay bằng “it”

Ex: Everything is ready, isn’t it?

- Các đại từ no one, nobody, someone, somebody, everyone, everybody, anyone, anybody: được thay bằng “they”

Ex: Someone called me last night, didn’t they?

- Đại từ this / that được thay bằng “it”; these / those được thay bằng “they”

Ex:That is his car, isn’t it?

      These are your new shoes, aren’t they?

- “There” trong cấu trúc “there + be” được dùng lại ở phần đuôi

Ex: There aren’t any students in the classroom, are there?  

- Câu nói có trợ động từ (will / can / shall / should / is / are …): trợ động từ được lặp lại ở phần đuôi

Ex: You will come early, won’t you?

- Câu nói không có trợ động từ: trợ động từ do / does / did được dùng ở phần đuôi

Ex: It rained yesterday, didn’t it?

      She works in a restaurant, doesn’t she?

- Câu nói có chứa các từ phủ định thì phần đuôi khẳng đ5nh

Ex: He never comes late, does he?

Note: Động từ trong phần đuôi ở phủ định thì luôn được viết ở dạng rút gọn.

2. Một số trường hợp đặc biệt:

- Phần đuôi của I AM AREN’T I

Ex: I am writing a letter, aren’t I?

- Phần đuôi của Let’sSHALL WE

Ex: Let’s go out tonight, shall we?

- Câu mệnh lệnh khẳng định:

+ dùng phần đuôi WON’T YOU để diễn tả lời mời

+ dùng phần đuôi WILL / WOULD / CAN / CAN’T YOU để diễn tả lời yêu cầu lịch sự

Ex: Have a piece of cake, won’t you?

      Close the door, will you?

- Câu mệnh lệnh phủ định: dùng phần đuôi WILL YOU để diễn tả lời yêu cầu lịch sự

Ex: Please don’t smoke her, will you?

- Phần đuôi của ought toSHOULDN’T

Ex: She ought to do exercise every morning, shouldn’t she?

 

PASSIVE SENTENCES (Câu bị động)

1. Cách chuyển từ câu chủ động sang câu bị động:

 

Active

 

S + V + O

 

 

S + be*  + P.P  + by + O

(* be chia theo thì của V)

 

Passive

Ex: They are painting the house.

  → The house is being painted.

       They had destroyed all the documents when we arrived.

  → All the documents had been destroyed when we arrived.

 

2. Thay đổi hình thức động từ cụ thể trong từng thì:

 

TENSES

ACTIVE

PASSIVE

Simple Present

S + V1-s/es

S + am / is / are + PP

Present continuous

S + am / is / are + V-ing 

S + am / is / are + being + PP

Simple Past

S + V-ed / V2

S + was / were + PP

Past continuous

S + was / were + V-ing

S + was / were + being + PP

Present Perfect

S + have / has + PP

S + have / has + been + PP

Past Perfect

S + had + PP

S + had + been + PP

Simple Future

S + will + V1

S + will + be + PP

Modal verbs

 

         can

         may

         must

S +    have to + V1

         should

         used to

         be going to

         can

         may

         must

S +    have to + be  + V3

         should

         used to

         be going to

Verbs of perception

          see

          hear

 S +   watch + O + V1

          make

          let

                   seen

                   heard

 S +  be +   watched + to – inf.

                   made

                   let

Causative form

S + have + O (người) +  V1 + O (vật)

 

S + get + O (người) + to- inf + O (vật)

 

S + have / get + O (vật) + V3

                      (+ by +  O (người))

 

* Verbs of reporting: (động từ chỉ ý kiến: say, think, know, report, believe…)

-         Active 

People (they) + say (said) + that

S2

V2

O2

 

-         Passive:

 

1

It + is / was + said + that

S2

V2

O2

 

2

 

S2

am/ is/ are

                       + said

was/ were

không còn that

to-inf.

 

to have + V3

 

O2

             

 

EXERCISES

I. Change the following sentences into the passive voice.

1. They grow rice in tropical countries.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

2. Mr. Green loves his children very much.

→ ______________________________________________________________________

3. People don’t speak French here.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

4. Someone broke his windows last night.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

5. The police didn’t find the lost boy yesterday.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

6. About thirty million people are watching this live show now.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

7. They were carrying the injured player off the field at that time.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

8. Jack has typed the article recently.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

9. The police haven’t found the murderer yet.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

10. They were carrying the injured player off the field at that time.

→ ______________________________________________________________________

11. They had wrapped the package carefully before they posted it.

→ ______________________________________________________________________

12. Children should treat old men with respect.

→ ______________________________________________________________________

 

13. The computer can do all the accounts.

→ ______________________________________________________________________

14. They are going to build a new school.

→ ______________________________________________________________________

15. He isn’t going to buy that house.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

16. They will pull down that building

→ _______________________________________________________________________

17. The teacher won’t correct the exercises tomorrow.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

18. You have to keep dangerous chemicals in the safe place.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

19. Police had to break the meeting up.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

20. She used to pull my hat over my eyes. 

→ _______________________________________________________________________

21. They may use that room for the classroom.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

22. You must wash your hands.        

→ _______________________________________________________________________

23. They ought to knock down the old building.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

24. You needn’t type that report today.

→ ________________________________________________________________________

25. Nobody has used this room for ages.

→ ________________________________________________________________________

26. No one can solve that problem.

→ ________________________________________________________________________

27. No one told us the news.

→ ________________________________________________________________________

28. Paul didn’t tell me the ending of the story. 

→ ________________________________________________________________________

29. The teacher will give her a prize if she works well.

→ ________________________________________________________________________

30. Her mother bought her a doll last week.

→ ________________________________________________________________________

31. The police found the robber in the forest yesterday.

→ ________________________________________________________________________

32. They made him work all day.

→ ________________________________________________________________________

33. People don’t make the children work hard.

→ ________________________________________________________________________

34. They let him meet her family last month.

→ ________________________________________________________________________

35. He won’t let you do that silly thing again.

→ ________________________________________________________________________

36. People saw him steal your car.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

37. I have heard her sing this song several times.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

 

38. The teacher is watching them work.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

39.Alicehad a mechanic repair her car.

→ ________________________________________________________________________

40. Ellen got Marvin to type her paper.

→ ________________________________________________________________________

41. The hairdresser is cutting Mary’s hair now.

→ Mary is having her hair ____________________________________

→ Mary is having the hairdresser ___________________________

42. People know that English is an international language.

→ It is known ___________________________________________________

→ English is known ____________________________________________________

43. They said that she won the competition.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

→ _______________________________________________________________________

44. They reported that the President had suffered a heard attack.

→ _______________________________________________________________________

→ __________________________________________________________

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

  1. These T-shirts and jeans ……………… in theUS. in 1900.

A. have made                B. made                                   C. were made              D. make

  1. The building is very dangerous. It …………… down next week.

A. knocked                   B. will knock                           C. will be knocked      D. was knocked

  1. The room looks nice. It ……………….

A. was cleaning             B. has just been cleaned          C. will be cleaned       D. is cleaning

  1. We ……………… each other for 10 years.       

A. know                                    B. knew                                   C. have known          D. had known

  1. Our twenty houses ……………… when the fire engine ……………….

A. had burnt up / arrived                                  B. burnt up / had arrived

        C. had been burnt up / arrived                                    D. will have burnt / arrives

  1. After I ……………… the grass, it ……………… to rain.

A. have watered / will begin                                               B. water / began

        C. had watered / began                                               D. had watered / will have begun

  1. Next week when there ………………… a full moon, the ocean tides will be higher.

A. is being                     B. is                                         C. will be                     D. will have been

  1. English is ……………… all over the world.                  

          A. spoken                   B. speak               C. speaks                            D. to speak

  1. Where will these coconut trees ………………?   

A. be planted                B. planted                   C. plant                                   D. be planting

  1.  Before Jane won the lottery, she …………… any kind of contest.

A. hasn’t entered          B. doesn’t enter                      C. wasn’t entering       D. hadn’t entered

  1. My parents ……………… tomorrow to stay with me for a few days.

A. come                         B. will have come                   C. are coming              D. came

  1. She left home in 1993 and ………………… since then.

            A. hasn’t seen             B. didn’t see               C. hasn’t been seen                 D. wasn’t seen

  1. ……………… your house painted last year?

A. Had                                    B. Did                         C. Was                                    D. Have

  1. What …………… you …………… at 8 o’clock last night?

  A. did/ do                   B. have/ done              C. were/ doing            D. had/ done

 

15. - “We are having a party at the weekend.”  - “ Great! Who …………………?”

            A. will being invited                           B. Is going to invite         

C. is going to be invited                      D. will invite

16. This is the fifth time you ……………… the same question.

            A. ask                          B. asked                      C. are asking                           D. have asked

17. This church was said ……………… in the 19th century.

A. to build                   B. to be built               C. to have been built               D. being built

18. InEngland, the academic year …………… into three terms. Each term …………… by a one-week break.

A. is divided / separated                                 B. divided / is separated

C. is divided / is separated                              D. divided / separated

19. Gold ……………. in Californiain the 19th century.

A. was discovered      B. was discover           C. has been discovered           D. they discovered

20. I am going to have my car ……………. 

A. service                    B. to be serviced                     C. serviced                  D. servicing

21. Two tablets ……………… twice a day to have you recover from the illness quickly.

A. must take                      B. must be taken             C. must have taken               D. must be taking

22.  The next meeting …………… in May.

A. will hold                       B. will be held             C. will be holding                   D. will have held

 

TEST 1

Câu 1: Chọn câu tường thuật gần nghĩa nhất với câu sau: "If I were you, I wouldn't sign the contract." said Henry.

A. Henry advised me not to sign the contract.

B. Henry asked me to sign the contract.

C. Henry encouraged me not to sign the contract.

D. Henry reminded me not to sign the contract.

Câu 2: Many people have complained about the _________ air in the area _______ the factory.

A. polluted / surrounded                                      B. polluting / surrounding

C. polluted / surrounding                                     D. polluting / surrounded

Câu 3: In order _________ the child's confidence, you must be strict but fair with him.

A. being gained             B. to gain                       C. gaining                      D. gain

Câu 4: The tourist company is thought ________ money next year.

A. to be lost                   B. to have been lost       C. to lose                        D. to have lost

Câu 5: I can remember ________ very proud and happy when I graduated.

A. to being                     B. be                              C. being                         D. to be

Câu 6: Chọn một từ / cụm từ gạch chân trong câu sau cần phải sửa: "We broke out journey in Edinburgh before being travelled to London the next day."

A. being travelled          B. journney                    C. broke                         D. the.

Câu 7: More schools are hoped ________ in rural areas in the coming years.

A. to have been built     B. to build                      C. to have built              D. to be built

Câu 8: The mystery of the ocean began _________ by scientists

A. to be found out         B. to be found out         C. to find out                 D. finding out

Câu 9: All  of the students in my school are accustomed ________ school uniform.

A. for wearing               B. of wearing                 C. wearing                     D. to wearing

Câu 10: They ______ their childhood in the countryside. Life then _______ very hard.

A. spend / is                   B. spent / were               C. spent / will be            D. spent / was

Câu 11: Chọn một từ / cụm từ gạch chân trong câu sau cần phải sửa: "The hospital has asked various voluntary organizations to help raising money for the new operating threatre."

A. raising                       B. voluntary                   C. has asked                   D. to help

Câu 12: Chọn một từ / cụm từ gạch chân trong câu sau cần phải sửa: "She's been trying passing her driving test for six years and she's finally succeeded."

A. succeeded                 B. finally                        C. passing                      D. driving

Câu 13: Sarah ________ from a well-known university.

A. is said that she graduated                                B. was said to be graduated

C. is said to have graduated                                 D. was said graduated

Câu 14: Chọn câu tường thuật gần nghĩa nhất với câu sau: "Would you like to stay for lunch with us?"

A. They wanted me to stay for lunch with them.

B. They invited me to stay for lunch with them.

C. They promised to offer me a lunch.

D. They offered me to stay for lunch with them.

Câu 15: _________ TV has become one of the most popular forms of entertainment.

A. Watching                  B. To watch                   C. To watching              D. Watch

Đọc đoạn văn sau và chọn một câu trả lời đúng nhất cho các câu hỏi, từ câu 43 đến câu 47

In theUnited States, friendships can be close, constant, intense, generous and real, yet fade away in a short time if circumstances change. Neither side feels hurt by this. Both may exchange Christmas greetings for a year or two, perhaps a few letters for a while - then no more. If the same two people meet again by chance, even years later, they pick up the friendship where they left off and are delighted.

In theUnited States, you can feel free to visit people's homes, share their holidays, or enjoy their lives without fear that they are taking on a lasting obligation. Do not hesitate to accept hospitality because you can not give it in return. No one will expect you to do so for they know you are far from home. Americans will enjoy welcoming you and be pleased if you accept their hospitality easily.

Once you arrived there, the welcome will be full, warm, and real. Most visitors find themselves readily invited into many homes there. In some countries it is considered inhospitable to entertain at home, offering what it felt as only home cooked food, not "doing something for your guests." It is felt that restaurant entertaining shows most respect and welcome. Or for the other reasons, such as crowded space, language difficulties, or family customs, outsiders are not invited into homes.

In theUnited States, both methods are used, but it is often considered more friendly to invite a person to one's home then go to a public place, except in a pure business relationships. So, if your host or hostess brings you home, do not feel that you are being shown inferior treatment.

Don't feel neglected if you do not find flowers awaiting you in your hotel room, either. Flowers are very expensive there; hotel delivery is uncertain; arrival times are delayed, changed or cancelled - so flowers are not customarily sent as a welcoming touch. Please do not feel unwanted! Outward signs vary in different lands; the inward welcome is what matters. And this will  be real.

Câu 16:  In theUnited States, friendship will _________ if circumstances change.

A. change suddenly       B. be destroyed             C. disappear gradually   D. be broken

Câu 17:  Americans ________ their foreign friends to make a return for their hospitality.

A. hope                          B. hesitate                      C. never allow                D. don't expect

Câu 18:  In theUnited States, inviting guests to a family dinner is ________ than inviting them to a public place, except some situations.

A. less inferior               B. less hospitable           C. more natural              D. more popular

Câu 19:  According to the passage, which of the following is not definitely true?

A. Flowers are not customarily sent to guests.

B. Flowers are used as a sign of welcome.

C. Flowers are beautiful and available at all time.

D. Flowers are really expensive.

Câu 20:  According to the passage, __________

A. Americans enjoy welcoming you if their hospitality is accepted.

B. in some countries it is considered hospitable to entertain at home.

C. inviting someone to a family dinner is considered an inferior treatment.

D. friendships in theUnited States last forever.

Câu 21: Chọn câu tường thuật gần nghĩa nhất với câu sau: "Don't forget to take your ticket with you."

A. His mother reminded him to take his ticket with him.

B. His mother told him to remind to take his ticket with him.

C. His mother advised him not to take his ticket with him.

D. His mother told him not to take his ticket with him.

Câu 22: If you are not completely ________ with the product, you can get a refund.

     A. satisfied                    B. to satisfy                      C. satisfy                     D. satisfying

Câu 23: Chọn một từ / cụm từ gạch chân trong câu sau cần phải sửa: "More people are infecting with HIV this year than they were 5 years ago."

A. this                            B. were                          C. infecting                    D. More

Câu 24: The man _________ daughter teaches me maths, is a doctor.

A. which                        B. whom                        C. who                           D. whose

Câu 25: I rode bicycle trips to the countryside _________ I can enjoy pure air.

A. whose                        B. which                        C. when                         D. where

Câu 26: Tìm một từ mà phần gạch chân có cách phát âm khác so với từ còn lại:

A. gay                            B. great                          C. gentle                        D. gate

Câu 27: I have just met the girls, some of _________ were your friends.

A. which                        B. whom                        C. whose                        D. who

Câu 28: _________ to the party,Nam was happy.

A. Invited                      B. To invite                    C. Inviting                     D. Be invited

Câu 29: The house  _________ he used to live in has been collapsed.

A. that                            B. when                         C. whom                        D. who

Câu 30: Chọn một từ / cụm từ gạch chân trong câu sau cần phải sửa: "The cost of living has increasing so much that he finds it difficult to live within his income."

A. living                         B. increasing                  C. much                         D. within

Đọc đoạn văn sau và chọn một câu trả lời thích hợp nhất, từ câu 1 đến câu 5

The population of the world has increased more in modern times than in all other ages of history combined. World population totalled about 500 million in 1650. It doubled in the period from 1650 - 1680. By the year 2000, the population will be about 6.6 billion. Estimates based on research by the United Nations indicate that it will double in the twenty-five years between 1975 and the year 2000.

No one knows the limits of the population that the earth can support. Thomas Malthus, an English economist, developed a theory that became widely accepted in the nineteenth century. He suggested that because world population tended to increase more rapidly than food supply, we should continuously constrain available resources. Malthus cited wars, famines, epidemics and other disasters as in the usual limitations of  world population growth. With recent advances in science and technology, including improved agricultural methods and great progresses and in medicine, some of the limiting factors in population growth have been lessened, with obvious results. International organizations have recommended programmes to encourage general economic development that target areas along with a decrease in birth rates to effect a lasting solution.

Câu 1:  Which of the options below is the best title for the passage?

A. A Brief History of Population and Over-population    B. Limiting Factors in Population Growth

C. The United Nations' Estimate                           D. Thomas Malthus's Theory

Câu 2:  What is the population from the estimates based on research by theUS?

A. Two million       B. Five hundred million          C. Seven billion                      D. Over six billion

Câu 3:  Who was Thomas Malthus?

A. A scientist                     B. An economist        

C. A doctor of medicine    D. A United Nations' representative

Câu 4:  According to the passage, the limiting factors in population growth have been lessened because of __________.

A. precaution                      B. disasters                  C. improved technology         D. scarcity

Câu 5:  What do most experts recommend in order to solve problems of overpopulation?

A. Medical advance and improved agricultural methods. B. Famine and epidemic.

    C. Economic development and a decline in the bith rate.  D. Conservation of available resources

Đọc đoạn văn sau và chọn một từ thích hợp nhất điền vào chỗ trống, từ câu 1  đến câu 15

THE TREAT TO THE ENVIRONMENT

Nowadays people are more aware that wildlife all over the world is in ___1___. Many ___2___ of animals are threatened and could easily become ___3___ if we do not make an effort to ___4___. There are many reasons for this. In some cases, animals are ___5___ for their fur or for other valuable parts of their bodies. Some birds, ___6___ as parrots, are caught ___7___ and sold as pets. For many animals and birds, the problem that their habitat, the ___8___ where they live is ___9___. More ___10___ is used for farms, for houses or industry, and there are fewer open ___11___ than there once were. Farmers use powerful chemicals to help them grow better ___12___, but these chemicals pollute the environment and ___13___ wildlife. The most successful animals on earth, human beings, will soon be the only ones ___14___, unless we can ___15___ this problem.

Câu 1:     A. danger                   B. problem                 C. threat                     D. vanishing

Câu 2:     A. forms                     B. more                      C. marks                     D. species

Câu 3:     A. empty                    B. vanished                C. disappeared           D. extict

Câu 4:     A. harm                      B. serve                      C. protect                   D. safe

Câu 5:     A. extinct                   B. hunted                   C. chased                   D. game

Câu 6:     A. or                           B. like                        C. such                       D. where

Câu 7:     A. alive                      B. for living               C. for life                   D. lively

Câu 8:     A. site                        B. pint                        C. place                      D. spot

Câu 9:     A. disappearing          B. escaping                C. exhausting             D. departing

Câu 10:   A. soil                        B. area                        C. land                       D. earth

Câu 11:   A. up                          B. spaces                    C. air                          D. parts

Câu 12:   A. fields                     B. herbs                      C. crops                      D. products

Câu 13:   A. spoil                      B. wrong                    C. harm                      D. wound

Câu 14:   A. missing                  B. left                         C. over                       D. survived

Câu 15:   A. answer                   B. calculate                C. explain                   D. solve

Đọc đoạn văn sau và chọn một phương án thích hợp nhất để trả lời câu hỏi, từ câu 1  đến câu 5

Today I'd like to begin a discussion on the problem of the heating up the earth. First we'll touch on the relationship between fluorocarbons and the ozone layer. You probably remember that the ozone layer is the protective shield around the earth. It is important to all life, because it filters out harmful ultraviolet light from the sun. Ozone itself, a form of oxygen, is regularly destroyed by natural chemical processes.

The problem now is that too much of the ozone layer is being destroyed. Scientists suspect that certain chemicals, such as fluorocarbons, are contributing to the depletion of the ozone layer. And how do we use fluorocarbons? The most common uses are in spray cans and cooling systems. The chemical pollution from theses fuorocrabons can account for some of the ozone losses that have been reported. There are, however, new studies linking the sun itself to the depletion of the ozone layer. We'll go into that new study more next time.

Câu 1:  Who is the most likely speaker?

A. A mechanic               B. A professor               C. A doctor                    D. A chemist

Câu 2:  What is the speaker's main topic?

A. Fluorocarbons and ozone layer                        B. Ultraviolet

C. Air-conditioning systems                                D. The uses of spray cans

Câu 3:  What is the most important purpose of the ozone layer?

A. Providing fluorocarbons                                  B. Shielding the sun

C. Protecting the earth                                         D. Destroying chemicals

Câu 4:  What is the ozone layer made of?

A. Ultraviolet light        B. Shields                      C. Oxygen                     D. Fluorocarbons

Câu 5:  What will the speaker probably discuss next?

A. The make-up of the ozone layer

B. How to make air conditioners with fuorocarbons

C. Harmful effects of ultraviolet light

D. The sun as a cause of ozone layer depletion

 

TEST 2

Choose the word A, B, C or D that has the underlined part pronounced differently from that of the others.

1. A.  meets                             B.  tunes                      C. develops                 D. friends

2. A. admire                            B. avid                                    C. variety                    D. while

3. A. agreed                            B. organised                C. based                      D. listened

Choose the best answer

4. It.............Ha and Lan that are speaking English in this room.

A. was                         B. be                            C. are                                       D. is                

5. The most important thing is to keep yourself occupied.

A. busy                        B. relaxed                    C. comfortable                        D. free

6.  ____Englandwon the World Cup.

A.  It was in 1966 that                                                                        B.  It was on 1966 that          

C.  It was in 1966 when                                                          D.  It was 1966 in that

7. She ____ hard but also gets on well with her classmates.

C. not only studies                                                                  D. not studies only

A. doesn’t only study                                                             B. studies not only     

8. Collecting stamps ......................... my understanding about the world.

A. enlarges                  B. broadens                 C. encourages                          D. deepens

 

9. They, as well as he, ……………..responsible for this act.

A. stands                     B. stand                       C. standing                              D. to stand

10. Their efforts were much ………… when they won 2 gold, medals in bodybuilding and billiards.

A. considered              B. required                  C. expended                             D. appreciated

11. Anything …………better than going to another movie tonight.

A. is                             B. are                           C. was                                     D. were

12. Tom,……………..lives next door, is having a party tonight.

A. whom                     B. who                                    C. Ø                                        D. where

13. Now women work both before …………….. after having their children.

A. or                            B. also                         C. nor                                      D. and

14. Neither she nor I ………………..responsible for that. It isn’t our duty.

A. are                          B.  is                            C. am                                       D. have

15. My father is an ............ guitarist.

A. accomplishing        B. accomplish              C. accomplished                      D. accomplishment

16. There ………two pagodas facing the little lake.

A. are                          B. is                             C. be                                        D. to be

17. Not only John but also his two brothers ………………… football as their recreation every weekend.

A. play                        B. plays                       C. were playing                       D. has play

18. The hotel is neither spacious …………………..

A. or comfortable        B. nor comfortable      C. or comfort                          D. nor comfort           

19. Vietnamwon 3 gold ……………… in the 15th Asian Games.

A. degrees                   B. medals                    C. awards                                 D. boards

20. I had to pick up my brother, …………car wouldn’t start.

A. who                                    B. who his                   C. whose                                 D. whom of

Rewrite the sentences without changing its meaning

26. He broke her glasses. (Cleft sentences in the passive)

  ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

27. Bermudagot its name in 1964. (Adverbial focus)

  ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

28. He didn’t write. He didn’t phone. (neither….nor)

  ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

29. I respect them and I admire them. (both…and)

  ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

30. She is very charming. Moreover, she is very intelligent. (not only…but also)

  ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

TEST 3

Choose the word A, B, C or D that has the underlined part pronounced differently from that of the others.

1. A. albums                                       B. tanks                      C. shops                                              D. plants

2. A. admired                                    B. looked                    C. missed                                D. hoped

3. a. popular                                      b. music                       c. public                                   d. solitude

Choose the best answer

4. Vietnamwon 3 gold ……………… at the 15th Asian Games.

A. degrees                   B. medals                                C. awards                                 D. boards

5. The hotel is neither spacious …………………..

A. or comfortable        B. nor comfortable                  C. or comfort                          D. nor comfort           

6. These pictures, as well as, photograph ……………. the room.

A. brighten                  B. brightened                          C. brightens                             D. to brighten

7. What you told me……….to be of on importance.

A. seem                       B. seems                                  C. to seem                               D. seeming

8..................... I first met my girlfriend.

A.  It was inLondonthat                                                    B.  It was inLondonwhere

C.  It wasLondonthat                                                        D.  It wasLondonwhich

9. This is a picture in the newspaper of a high jumper................... leg was seriously hurt.

A. who                                    B. who                                                C. whose                                 D. that

10. There …..some people at the meeting last year.

A. was                         B. were                                    C. are                                       D. is

11. Collecting stamps ......................... my understanding about the world.

A. enlarges                  B. broadens                             C. encourages                          D. deepens

12. Mr. James, ……………you met at the conference, taught me Statistics at university.

A. whom                     B. that                                     C. which                                  D. all are correct

13. Now women work both before …………….. after having their children.

A. or                            B. also                                     C. nor                                      D. and

14. Five hundred miles………… a long distance.

A. to be                       B. were                                    C. are                                       D. is

15.  I like the book ....................you lent me last week.

A. who                                    B. when                                   C. where                                  D. Ø

16. My father is an ............ guitarist.

A. accomplishing        B. accomplish                          C. accomplished                      D. accomplishment

17. The Red Lion is the pub in …………..we met for a drink.

A. that                         B. where                                  C. it                                         D. which

18. Not only John but also his two brothers ………………… football as their recreation every weekend.

A. play                        B. plays                                   C. were playing                       D. has play

19.Mexico City, …............. is the largest growing city in the world, has the population of over ten million.

A. which                     B. what                                   C. that                                     D. where

20. My father never indulges ............ drinking.

A.  on                                      B.  in                                       C.  with                                   D.  to

Rewrite the sentences without changing its meaning

21. She sends her friends the postcard. (Cleft sentences in the passive)

 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

22. He described his hometown in his novel. (Adverbial focus)  

………………………………………………………………………………………………………

23. It won’t rain today. It won’t rain tomorrow. (neither…nor)

  ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

24. She’s French. She’s Swiss. (either ............. or)

  ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

25. She’s tired. She’s hungry. (Not only ............... but also)

 

TEST 4

  1. A. comfortable              B. postcard                              C. architecture                       D. artificial
  2. A. uncertainty               B. activity                               C. organize                            D. gigantic
  3. A. express                     B. panel                                   C. wrestling                           D. danger
  4. A. governments             B. laws                                    C. hundreds                          D. fuels
  5. A. skill                           B. billiards                               C. biking                               D. weightlifting
  6. Many kinds of rare animals are on the verge of _______________.

          A. disappearance           B. death                                  C. destruction                       D. extinction

  1. Yuri Gagarin was really a well-known _______________ all over the world.

          A. spacecraft                 B. cosmonaut                          C. pilot                           D. flight attendant

  1. Despite the bad weather, he _______________ get to the airport in time.

          A. could not                  B. might                                  C. was able to                       D. couldn’t

  1. He did well in _______________ mathematics and history.

          A. neither                      B. or                                        C. and                                   D. both

  1. The people _______________ for the bus in the rain are getting wet.

          A. waiting                     B. to wait                                C. who waiting       D. which waited

  1. A _______________ is a place where you can buy stamps, send letters, etc.

          A. station                      B. post office                          C. bookshop                          D. market

  1. A _______________ is a vehicle that travels in space.

          A. satellite                     B. spaceman                            C. spacecraft                         D. train

  1. The fish _______________ for dinner was really delicious.

          A. we had                     B. that we had it                     C. we had it                          D. had

  1. The story to _______________ I listened yesterday was interesting.

          A. that                           B. whom                                 C. which                                D. who

  1. The ancient Egyptians built stone _______________ as places to bury their kings.

          A. monuments               B. graves                                 C. tombs                                D. pyramids

  1. The singer was _______________ on the piano by her sister.

          A. discarded                 B. accompanied                      C. performed                         D. played

  1. Peter has left these socks on the bathroom floor, _______________?

          A. didn’t Peter              B. hasn’t Peter                        C. hasn’t he                           D. didn’t he

  1. My grandmother, ____________ was an extraordinary woman, lived to the age of a hundred and fifteen.

          A. whom                       B. who                                    C. which                                D. that

  1. The book is about the girl _______________ runs away from home.

          A. whom                       B. which                                  C. whose                               D. who

  1. I hate camping because I can’t __________an umbrella tent in the wind and can’t make a fire in the rain.

          A. put up                       B. take over                             C. set off                               D. turn round

  1. The Asian Games _______________ every four years.

          A. takes place                B. takes over                           C. takes part in                      D. takes off

  1. There are some hobbies that I ____________ in for a while besides reading books and collecting stamps.

          A. occupy                      B. indulge                               C. fascinate                           D. accomplish

  1. Scientists should be encouraged to develop _______________ for the present sources of energy.

          A. gases                         B. alternatives                         C. fuels                                  D. power

Choose the underlined part that needs correction.

  1. It was at the shop which she bought a wonderful present for him on his birthday.
  2. Using bicycles in big cities is good because they are not only clean and easy to park.
  3. This school is only for children their first language is not English.
  4. John was the last man reached the top of the mountain in the contest held last year.
  5. On 15th October in 2003, China launched its first manned spacecraft into space, wasn’t it?

Read and fill in the blanks with the beast answer.

We need energy to live and work. Our major source of (6) _____is oil. Oil is one kind of fossil fuel. The amount of fossil fuels in the world is (7) _____. Therefore, we must save it and must find new sources of energy. Geothermal (8) _____and nuclear power are alternative sources of energy. They can give us electricity. Other alternative sources are the sun, waves (9) _____water. These sources are not only unlimited and available (10)_____clean and safe for the environment. People should develop and use them more and more in the future.

 

  1. A. oil                             B. fuel                                     C. heat                                   D. energy
  2. A. renewable                 B. unlimited                            C. nonrenewable                   D. limited
  3. A. heated                      B. heat                                     C. hot                                    D. heating
  4. A. and                           B. or                                        C. both                                  D. also
  5. A. both                          B. either                                  C. but also                             D. and

Read the passage and do the tasks that follow.

The Asian Games, also called the ASIAD, is a multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all overAsia. The games are regulated by the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) under the supervision of the International Olympic Committee (IOC). Medals are awarded in each event, with gold for the first place, silver for second and bronze for third. This tradition started in 1951. The Asian Games are dominated by the People’s Republic ofChina. Competitors are entered by a National Olympic Committee (NOC) to represent their country of citizenship. National anthems and flags accompany the medal ceremonies, and tables showing the number of medals won by each country are widely used. In general, only recognized nations are represented, but a few non-sovereign countries are allowed to take part. The special case ofTaiwanwas handled by having it compete as Chinese Taipei due to the political status ofTaiwan.

The 15th Asian Games were held in Doha, Qatar from December 1st to December 16, 2005. The next ASIAD will be held in Guangzhou, China from November 2nd to November 18th, 2010.

  1. The Asian Games is _______________

          A. dominated by the People’s Republic ofChina     B. supervised by the Olympic Council of Asia

          C. rewarded with only gold medals         D. regulated by International Olympic Committee

  1. The Asian Games are _______________

          A. held every for years B. also called ASIAD    C. a multi-sport event   D. All are correct.

  1. Which of the following sentences is NOT true?

          A. In general only recognized nations are represented.                                             

          B. Gold medals are awarded for the first place.          

          C. Taiwan was not represented because of its political status.                                  

          D. There are many sports events played in the Asian Games.

  1. Where will the 16th Asian Games be held?

          A. InJapan                    B. InChina                             C. InDoha     D. InTaiwan

  1. The best title for the passage is _______________.

          A. The Asian Games (The ASIAD)                              B. The Olympic Council ofAsia       

          C. The International Olympic Committee                    D. The National Olympic Committee

Choose the one that is closest meaneang to the root one.

  1. The boy played football the whole afternoon.

          A. It was the whole afternoon that the boy played.

          B. It was football that the boy played the whole afternoon.                                     

          C. It was the boy that football played the whole afternoon.                                     

          D. It was football which played with the boy the whole afternoon.

  1. My mother gave me this camera on my 18th birthday.

          A. It was this camera that was given to me on my 18th birthday.                             

          B. It was on my 18th birthday that I gave this camera to my mother.                       

          C. It was me that gave this camera to my mother on my 18th birthday.                    

          D. It was my mother that was given this camera on my 18th birthday.

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