Một số từ nối, cụm từ nối thông dụng (Common linking words)

Cập nhật lúc: 10:38 09-04-2016 Mục tin: Ngữ Pháp (Grammar)


Bài này giới thiệu một số từ, cụm từ nối phổ biến hay được sử dụng kèm bài tập luyện tập.

 

Linking words

Linking words

Notes

Giving examples:
For example
For instance
Namely

for example or for instance: ví dụ như

Namely refers to something by name. "There are two problems: namely, the expense and the time."

 

 

Adding information

And
In addition
As well as
Also
Too
Furthermore
Moreover
Apart from
In addition to
Besides

 

Và, hơn nữa, thêm vào đó, cũng, bên cạnh, vả lại…

In a list, you put a comma between each item, but not before and. Ex: "We discussed training, education and the budget."

Also: add an extra idea or emphasis. Ex: "We also spoke about marketing." +  "We are concerned not only by the costs, but also by the competition."

We don't usually start a sentence with also. If you want to start a sentence with a phrase that means also, you can use In addition, or In addition to this

As well as: at the beginning or the middle of a sentence.

"As well as the costs, we are concerned by the competition." + "We are interested in costs as well as the competition."

Too goes either at the end of the sentence, or after the subject and means as well. Ex: "They were concerned too." + "I, too, was concerned."

Apart from and besides are often used to mean as well as, or in addition to.

Ex: "Apart from Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer." + "Besides Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer."

Moreover and furthermore: Ex: "Marketing plans give us an idea of the potential market. Moreover, they tell us about the competition."

Summarising

In short
In brief
In summary
To summarise
In a nutshell
To conclude
In conclusion

Tóm lại, nói chung,

His novels belong to a great but vanished age. They are, in short, old-fashioned.

In brief, the meeting was a disaster.

 And so I would say, in summary, that the campaign has been a great success or And so in summary, I would say that the campaign has been a great success

Sequencing ideas

The former, … the latter
Firstly, secondly, finally
The first point is
Lastly
The following  Next, then, after that….

Đầu tiên, kế đến, sau đó, cuối cùng,

"Marketing and finance are both covered in the course. The former is studied in the first term and the latter is studied in the final term."

Firstly, … secondly, … finally (or lastly) are useful ways to list ideas.

It's rare to use "fourthly", or "fifthly". Instead, try the first point, the second point, the third point and so on.

“After a long delay, finally, the performance started” +  "The following people have been chosen to go on the training course: N Peters, C Jones and A Owen."

Giving a reason


Due to / due to the fact that
Owing to / owing to the fact that
Because
Because of
Since
As

Bởi vì, tại vì

Due to and owing to must be followed by a noun phrase. Ex: "Due to the rise in oil prices, the inflation rate rose by 1.25%." + "Owing to the demand, we are unable to supply all items within 2 weeks."

With a clause (a subject, verb and object), must use the fact that. Ex: "Due to the fact that oil prices have risen, the inflation rate has gone up by 1%25." + "Owing to the fact that the workers have gone on strike, the company has been unable to fulfill all its orders."

Because / because of. Because of: a noun, or a noun phrase. Ex: "Because of bad weather, the football match was postponed."

Because: a clause. Ex: "Because it was raining, the match was postponed." + Since / as

Since and as mean because. Ex: "Since the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff." + "As the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff."

Giving a result

Therefore
So, hence
Consequently
This means that
As a result

Vì thế, do đó, kết quả là……..

Therefore, so, consequently and as a result are all used in a similar way. Ex: "The company is expanding. Therefore / So / Consequently / As a result, they are taking on extra staff."

So is more informal. Ex: the shops were closed, so I didn't get any milk

 

Contrasting ideas

But
However
Although / even though
Despite / despite (the fact that)
In spite of / in spite of (the fact that)
Nevertheless
Nonetheless
While
Whereas
Unlike
In theory… in practice…

Yet

Nhưng, tuy nhiên, mặc dù….

But is more informal than however. Ex: "He works hard, but he doesn't earn much."
"He works hard. However, he doesn't earn much."

Although, despite and in spite of : contrast. Ex: "Although it was cold, she went out in shorts."
"In spite of the cold, she went out in shorts."

Despite and in spite of: a noun phrase. Ex: "Despite the fact that the company was doing badly, they took on extra employees." Although: a clause

Nevertheless and nonetheless mean in spite of that or anyway. Ex: "The sea was cold, but he went swimming nevertheless." (In spite of the fact that it was cold.)
"The company is doing well. Nonetheless, they aren't going to expand this year."

While, whereas and unlike: show how two things are different from each other. Ex: "While my sister has blue eyes, mine are brown." + "Taxes have gone up, whereas social security contributions have gone down." + "Unlike in the UK, the USA has cheap petrol."

In theory… in practice…:  show an unexpected result. Ex: "In theory, teachers should prepare for lessons, but in practice, they often don't have enough time."

 Exercise 1: Paying attention to the expressions used in the following sentences, fill in the blanks with the words and, but also, nor, or, than, then and when, as appropriate. For example:
1. I have both respect _________ admiration for them.
2. Hardly had I finished reading over the problem, _________ the answer leapt to my mind.
3. It will rain either today _________ tomorrow.
4. He could not decide whether to tell the truth _________ keep silent.
5. It was not only a beautiful day, ___________ the first day of Spring.
6. If you follow the instructions, __________ you should have no difficulty.
7. He is neither proud _________ condescending.
8. What with one thing _________ another, it was very late by the time we left the house.
9. No sooner had I opened my eyes, _________ I remembered where I was.
10. Scarcely had I heard the news, _________ my friend arrived.
11. I do not know whether he has seen the movie before ________ not.
12. I would rather wait here _________ risk missing the bus.
13. She could find the book neither at the Library, _________ at the bookstore.
14. No sooner had I opened the window, _________ a butterfly flew into the room.
15. The crowd was both large _________ enthusiastic.

16. We should either walk quickly __ take the bus.
17. I had scarcely sat down ____ the telephone rang.

Exercise 2: Choose the best answer:

 We postponed our holiday ________ the bad weather. (because of, in spite of)

  1. We can't go to the cinema ________ it isn't open today. (although, even though, because)
  2. ________her dislikes for coffee, she drank it to keep herself warm. (although, despite, owing to)
  3. Mary will take a plane, __________she dislikes flying. (in spite of, even though, therefore, moreover)
  4. I would like to come, ___ I do not have time. (but, nor, and)
  5. ______Marcy’s sadness at losing the contest, she managed to smile. (despite of, also, apart from, in spite of)
  6. I invited him _________ his friends. (and, but, however)
  7. I went for a walk _______ the sun was shining. (because, otherwise)
  8. Do you know _______ the stores are open today? (as if, whether, as long as)
  9. We recognized her at once, ____________ we had not seen her for years. (although, in case, if)
  10. He kept reading ___________ he fell asleep. (for, until, since)
  11. The moon will rise ____________ the sun sets. (as soon as, than, before)
  12. It looks ____________ the train will be late. (while, as though, if)
  13. ____________ she got her degree, she became a teacher. (After, Than, Before, )
  14. We will not go skiing ____________ the weather is good. (as if, unless)
  15. ____________ he left, he made sure he had his keys with him. (Before, For)
  16. ____________ I told the truth, you would not believe me. (Even if, So that)
  17. They have known her ___________ she was a child. (until, since)
  18. I must leave now, ____________ I have a great deal of work to do. (as, than)
  19. What shall we do ____________ it rains? (or else, supposing)
  20. ____________ you read this book, you would be sure to enjoy it. (If, Until)
  21. The door was open, ____________ we could hear everything. (in case, so)
  22. I studied more ____________ he did. (than, whereas, while)
  23. We packed a lunch, ____________ we knew we would soon be hungry. (lest, yet, for)
  24. I will join you, ____________ the weather is fine. (providing that, than, in case)
  25. I’m going to bring along my umbrella ________ it rains (because of, as a result, in case, if)
  26. ____________ he is very busy, he is seldom at home. (Or else, Because)
  27. We must hurry, ___________ we will be late. (so that, or else, )
  28. Will you come with me? _________ I shall have to go alone. (Also, Otherwise, As well as, In case)
  29. She is kind. _______, she is rather forgetful. (However, Consequently, therefore)
  30. The work was new to me. ____________, it did not seem difficult. (Consequently, Nevertheless, In short)
  31. Continue along Queen Street. ____________ turn left. (Then, Therefore, also, too)
  32. It was very misty. ______________, we could not get a clear view of the mountain. (Hence, However)
  33. We had walked several miles. ____________, we did not feel tired. (Accordingly, Still, Since)
  34. She is a talented actress. ____________, she is very beautiful. (Moreover, Thus)
  35. We take the bus every day. __________, we are familiar with the bus route. (As if, Nevertheless, Thus)
  36. The child was sleepy. ______________, we went home early. (Otherwise, Therefore)
  37. The food was delicious. _____________, the service was excellent. (Likewise, Nevertheless)
  38. We looked everywhere. _____________, we could not find the keys. (However, Thus, Likewise)
  39. The book is long. _____________, the vocabulary is difficult. (In summary, Consequently, Furthermore)
  40. Luckily, the moon was bright. ______, we could not have seen the path. (Accordingly, Otherwise, Besides)
  41. He is old. _____________, his mind is still active. (Nonetheless, Therefore, Moreover, As well as)
  42. It was very hot. ____________, we decided to go swimming. (Consequently, So)
  43. It was very hot, __ we decided to go swimming. (Consequently, So)
  44. I have invited him. ____________, I have invited his sister. (Also, And)
  45. He walked up to the door ____________ knocked. (and, likewise)
  46. The bus fare is expensive; ____________, I prefer to walk. (so, therefore)
  47. She is well-educated. ____________, she has very good manners. (And, Besides)
  48. I would rather travel by train, ___________ the bus leaves earlier. (but, however)
  49. We were born in this village; ____________, we know everyone here. (hence, so that)
  50. Put less wood on the fire, ___________ it will be too smoky. (or, otherwise)
  51. They got off the train. __________ they began to search for a hotel. (And, Then)
  52. She studied for many months; ____________, she knew the material thoroughly. (consequently, so that)
  53. The weather was hot; ____________, the air was humid. (and, moreover, as well as)
  54. Please come with us, ____________ I can introduce you to my friends. (providing that, thus, so that)
  55. The sun was warm, ____________ a cool breeze blew in from the sea. (also, and, nor, but, however)
  56. I have read this book before; ____________, I do not remember the plot. (but, however)
  57. They were hot ____________ tired. (or, and, too)
  58. The door was locked; ____________, we would have waited inside. (firstly, or, otherwise)
  59. I have known her for many years; ____________, I understand her character well. (so that, thus)
  60. We opened the window ____________ fresh air would blow into the room. (because, consequently, so that)
  61. He is ignorant; ____________, he is lazy. (and, furthermore, so, thus)
  62. They visited many stores; ___________, they could not find what they were looking for. (but, however)
  63. You should go to sleep now, ____________ you will be tired tomorrow. (or, otherwise, and, but)
  64. I was worried; ___________, I was determined not to show it. (but, nevertheless, in addition)          

CONNECTORS

1)  You should keep the milk in the refrigerator_____________ it doesn’t go bad.

    A. since                       B. So that                          C. Because                    D. After

2)  You should say goodbye to your brother _____________ you leave for Europe.

    A. despite                    B. After                             C. Since                         D. before

3)  The class discussion was short;_____________, we gained some knowlegde from it.

    A. however                 B. Moreover                      C. Although                  D. therefore

4)  The undergone is cheap;_____________, it’s faster than the train.

    A. however                 B. Moreover                      C. But                           D. so   

5)  _____________ you study harder, you won’t win the scholarship.

    A. unless                     B. Because                        C. If                              D. in order that

6)  The countrytside air is fresh,________________, it’s not polluted.

    A. however                 B. Whenever                     C. Moreover                  D. beside

7)  ________________ she spoke slowly, I don’t understand her.

    A. since                       B. Although                      C. If                              D. as

8)  We will wait her ____________ he comes back.

    A. while                      B. Until                             C. Since                         D. for

9)  Our teacher explained the lesson slowly ______________ we might understand him.

    A. and                         B. So that                          C. If not                        D. or

10)              _____________ it rained heavily, we went to school on time.

    A. even though           B. Despite                         C. Because                    D. though not

11)              Our visit to Japan  was delayed___________ my wife’s illness.

    A. because                   B. Because of                    C. Thanks to                  D. although

12)              __________ he some to the theatre with me, I shall go alone

    A. because of              B. Because                        C. Unless                       D. when

13)              He tries his best to work hard ______________ help her family get over the difficulties.

    A. so as that                B. In order that                 C. Oi order to                D. so as not to

14)              We moved to the front row _____________ we could hear and see better.

    A. so as that                B. Because                        C. Although                  D. so that

15)              I made a mistake ____________ I was tired after the work.

    A. though                    B. So that                          C. Because                    D. if

16)              Minh had a terrible headache. __________________, he still wanted to go to school.

    A. therefore                 B. But                               C. However                   D. although

17)              My sister will take the plane to Singapore______________ she dislikes flying.

    A. because                   B. So that                          C. Therefore                  D. though

18)              My car broke down on the way.____________, when I got the airport, the plane had taken off.

    A. because                   B. However                       C. Therefore                  D. although

19)              His mother was sick._________________, Jane had to stay at home to look after her.

    A. but                          B. However                       C. So                             D. therefore

20)              They asked me to wait for them; ____________, he didn’t turn back.

    A. but                          B. However                       C. So                             D. Therefore

21)              Many people still believe him very much __________ he sometimes tell lies.

    A. because                   B. since                             C. although                   D. despite

22)              They were walking on the street _________ there was an accident.

    A. when                      B. while                             C. because                     D. so that

23)              __________ the darkness in the room, we couldn’t continue our studying.

    A. because                   B. since                             C. although                   D. In spite of

24)              Mary tries to study as hard as possible ___________ she can get the scholaship to study in England.

    A. in order to              B. so that                           C. because                     D. because of

25)              She stopped at the post office ___________ she could send the letter to her parents.

    A. although                 B. so as to                         C. in order that              D. despite

26)              He didn’t wear warm clothes __________________ the cold weather in winter.

    A. because                   B. although                       C. because of                D. in spite of

27)              What had you done ____________ I phoned you?

    A. as soon as               B. by the time                   C. after                          D. while

28)              Tom couldn’t get a job _____________ he couldn’t speak English well.

    A. because                   B. although                       C. because of                D. in spite of

29)              _____________ he knew the danger of smoking, he couldn’t give it up.

    A. since                       B. though                          C. because of                D. despite

30)              He  knew the danger of smoking;______________,  he couldn’t give it up.

    A. therefore                 B. But                               C. However                   D. although

31)              ____________ their poverty in their family, they live happily together everyday.

    A. as                            B. though                          C. because                     D. despite

32)              He didn’t drink beer _______________ he was really thirsrty.

    A. in spite of               B.  even though                 C. because                     D. since

33)              We will go without him ____________ he comes here  on time.

    A. though                    B. unless                            C. Because                    D. If

34)              Mike went ot the banbk ______________ he cashed his cheque.

    A. Therefore                B. So that                          C. However                   D. Although

35)              The students finish the test well _________________ its difficulties yesterday.

    A. therefore                 B. In spite of                     C. However                   D. Although

36)              She has driven a car _____________ she studied at the university.

    A. as soon as               B. by the time                   C. after                          D. since

37)              We  started out on the trip ______________ the weather was extremely hot.

    A. because                   B. In spite of                     C. Because of                D. Although

38)              We should wait for her __________ we had much time.

    A. though                    B. unless                            C. Because                    D. If

39)              ____________ we had much time, we shouldn’t wait for her

    A. though                    B. unless                            C. Because                    D. If

40)              The food didn’t look appetizing;______________, many people liked enjoying it.

    A. Therefore                B. So that                          C. However                   D. Although

41)              It was already 6p.m, ______________ we closed our office and went home.

    A. therefore                 B. But                               C. However                   D. So

42)              Ok! you can take Chemistry as your major.______________, you should remember that it is not easy to learn.

    A. therefore                 B. But                               C. However                   D. Although

43)              John succeeded in the exam ______________ his hard and methodical work.

    A. because                   B. In spite of                     C. Because of                D. Although

44)              He didn’t stop his car ___________ the traffic light turned red.

    A. because                   B. In spite of                     C. Because of                D. Although

45)              She didn’t join our programme _________________ she had to take a summer course at the college.

    A. so that                    B.because of                     C. Because                    D. Although

46)              She wanted to go to bed early ________________ her bad tiredness.

    A. because                   B. In spite of                     C. Because of                D. Although

47)              _________________ he had to take her mother to the hospital, he still attened our party yesterday.

    A. because                   B. In spite of                     C. Because of                D. Although

48)              ______________ they had read these books, they went out.

    A. as soon as               B. before                           C. after                          D. since

49)              The students couldn’t do the test ______________ its copmplicated problems.

    A. because                   B. In spite of                     C. Because of                D. Though

50)              ______________ it got dark, they continued working.

    A. because                   B. In spite of                     C. Because of                D. Even though

51)              He is very famous in his career, _____________, he’s always simple and modest.

    A. Therefore                B. But                               C. However                   D. So

52)              _______________ the hardship he met, he always feels optimistic.

    A. Because                  B. despite                          C. Because of                D. Even though

53)              The Americans had modern weapons, ___________ they failed in the war in Vietnam.

    A. Therefore                B. But                               C. However                   D. So

54)              Luan’s directions to his house were clear,_____________, Binh got lost.

A. Therefore                    B. But                               C. However                   D. So</

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