Namely refers to something by name. "There are two problems: namely, the expense and the time."
And In addition As well as Also Too Furthermore Moreover Apart from In addition to Besides
Và, hơn nữa, thêm vào đó, cũng, bên cạnh, vả lại…
In a list, you put a comma between each item, but not before and. Ex: "We discussed training, education and the budget."
Also: add an extra idea or emphasis. Ex: "We also spoke about marketing." + "We are concerned not only by the costs, but also by the competition."
We don't usually start a sentence with also. If you want to start a sentence with a phrase that means also, you can use In addition, or In addition to this…
As well as: at the beginning or the middle of a sentence.
"As well as the costs, we are concerned by the competition." + "We are interested in costs as well as the competition."
Toogoes either at the end of the sentence, or after the subject and means as well. Ex: "They were concerned too." + "I, too, was concerned."
Apart from and besides are often used to mean as well as, or in addition to.
Ex: "Apart from Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer." + "Besides Rover, we are the largest sports car manufacturer."
Moreover and furthermore: Ex: "Marketing plans give us an idea of the potential market. Moreover, they tell us about the competition."
In short In brief In summary To summarise In a nutshell To conclude In conclusion
Tóm lại, nói chung,
His novels belong to a great but vanished age. They are, in short, old-fashioned.
In brief, the meeting was a disaster.
And so I would say, in summary, that the campaign has been a great success or And so in summary, I would say that the campaign has been a great success
The former, … the latter Firstly, secondly, finally The first point is Lastly The following Next, then, after that….
Đầu tiên, kế đến, sau đó, cuối cùng,
"Marketing and finance are both covered in the course. The former is studied in the first term and the latter is studied in the final term."
Firstly, … secondly, … finally (or lastly) are useful ways to list ideas.
It's rare to use "fourthly", or "fifthly". Instead, try the first point, the second point, the third point and so on.
“After a long delay, finally, the performance started” + "The following people have been chosen to go on the training course: N Peters, C Jones and A Owen."
Giving a reason
Due to / due to the fact that Owing to / owing to the fact that Because Because of Since As
Bởi vì, tại vì
Due to and owing to must be followed by a noun phrase. Ex: "Due to the rise in oil prices, the inflation rate rose by 1.25%." + "Owing to the demand, we are unable to supply all items within 2 weeks."
With a clause (a subject, verb and object), must use the fact that. Ex: "Due to the fact that oil prices have risen, the inflation rate has gone up by 1%25." + "Owing to the fact that the workers have gone on strike, the company has been unable to fulfill all its orders."
Because / because of. Because of: a noun, or a noun phrase. Ex: "Because of bad weather, the football match was postponed."
Because: a clause. Ex: "Because it was raining, the match was postponed." + Since / as
Since and as mean because. Ex: "Since the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff." + "As the company is expanding, we need to hire more staff."
Giving a result
Therefore So, hence Consequently This means that As a result
Vì thế, do đó, kết quả là……..
Therefore, so, consequently and as a result are all used in a similar way. Ex: "The company is expanding. Therefore / So / Consequently / As a result, they are taking on extra staff."
Sois more informal. Ex: the shops were closed, so I didn't get any milk
But However Although / even though Despite / despite (the fact that) In spite of / in spite of (the fact that) Nevertheless Nonetheless While Whereas Unlike In theory… in practice…
Nhưng, tuy nhiên, mặc dù….
But is more informal than however. Ex: "He works hard, but he doesn't earn much." "He works hard. However, he doesn't earn much."
Although, despite and in spite of : contrast. Ex: "Although it was cold, she went out in shorts." "In spite of the cold, she went out in shorts."
Despite and in spite of: a noun phrase. Ex: "Despite the fact that the company was doing badly, they took on extra employees." Although: a clause
Nevertheless and nonetheless mean in spite of that or anyway. Ex: "The sea was cold, but he went swimming nevertheless." (In spite of the fact that it was cold.) "The company is doing well. Nonetheless, they aren't going to expand this year."
While, whereas and unlike: show how two things are different from each other. Ex: "While my sister has blue eyes, mine are brown." + "Taxes have gone up, whereas social security contributions have gone down." + "Unlike in the UK, the USA has cheap petrol."
In theory… in practice…: show an unexpected result. Ex: "In theory, teachers should prepare for lessons, but in practice, they often don't have enough time."
Exercise 1: Paying attention to the expressions used in the following sentences, fill in the blanks with the words and, but also, nor, or, than, then and when, as appropriate. For example: 1. I have both respect _________ admiration for them. 2. Hardly had I finished reading over the problem, _________ the answer leapt to my mind. 3. It will rain either today _________ tomorrow. 4. He could not decide whether to tell the truth _________ keep silent. 5. It was not only a beautiful day, ___________ the first day of Spring. 6. If you follow the instructions, __________ you should have no difficulty. 7. He is neither proud _________ condescending. 8. What with one thing _________ another, it was very late by the time we left the house. 9. No sooner had I opened my eyes, _________ I remembered where I was. 10. Scarcely had I heard the news, _________ my friend arrived. 11. I do not know whether he has seen the movie before ________ not. 12. I would rather wait here _________ risk missing the bus. 13. She could find the book neither at the Library, _________ at the bookstore. 14. No sooner had I opened the window, _________ a butterfly flew into the room. 15. The crowd was both large _________ enthusiastic.
16. We should either walk quickly __ take the bus. 17. I had scarcely sat down ____ the telephone rang.
Exercise 2: Choose the best answer:
We postponed our holiday ________ the bad weather. (because of, in spite of)
We can't go to the cinema ________ it isn't open today. (although, even though, because)
________her dislikes for coffee, she drank it to keep herself warm. (although, despite, owing to)
Mary will take a plane, __________she dislikes flying. (in spite of, even though, therefore, moreover)
I would like to come, ___ I do not have time. (but, nor, and)
______Marcy’s sadness at losing the contest, she managed to smile. (despite of, also, apart from, in spite of)
I invited him _________ his friends. (and, but, however)
I went for a walk _______ the sun was shining. (because, otherwise)
Do you know _______ the stores are open today? (as if, whether, as long as)
We recognized her at once, ____________ we had not seen her for years. (although, in case, if)
He kept reading ___________ he fell asleep. (for, until, since)
The moon will rise ____________ the sun sets. (as soon as, than, before)
It looks ____________ the train will be late. (while, as though, if)
____________ she got her degree, she became a teacher. (After, Than, Before, )
We will not go skiing ____________ the weather is good. (as if, unless)
____________ he left, he made sure he had his keys with him. (Before, For)
____________ I told the truth, you would not believe me. (Even if, So that)
They have known her ___________ she was a child. (until, since)
I must leave now, ____________ I have a great deal of work to do. (as, than)
What shall we do ____________ it rains? (or else, supposing)
____________ you read this book, you would be sure to enjoy it. (If, Until)
The door was open, ____________ we could hear everything. (in case, so)
I studied more ____________ he did. (than, whereas, while)
We packed a lunch, ____________ we knew we would soon be hungry. (lest, yet, for)
I will join you, ____________ the weather is fine. (providing that, than, in case)
I’m going to bring along my umbrella ________ it rains (because of, as a result, in case, if)
____________ he is very busy, he is seldom at home. (Or else, Because)
We must hurry, ___________ we will be late. (so that, or else, )
Will you come with me? _________ I shall have to go alone. (Also, Otherwise, As well as, In case)
She is kind. _______, she is rather forgetful. (However, Consequently, therefore)
The work was new to me. ____________, it did not seem difficult. (Consequently, Nevertheless, In short)